, Volume 58, Issue 1, pp 28–34 | Cite as

Design Principles for Augmented Reality Learning

  • Matt Dunleavy
Original Paper


Augmented reality is an emerging technology that utilizes mobile, context-aware devices (e.g., smartphones, tablets) that enable participants to interact with digital information embedded within the physical environment. This overview of design principles focuses on specific strategies that instructional designers can use to develop AR learning experiences. A review of the literature reveals the following three design principles as instructive: 1. Enable and then challenge (challenge): 2. Drive by gamified story (fantasy); and 3. See the unseen (curiosity). These design principles can also be viewed as an attempt to either leverage the unique affor- dances of AR or minimize the limitations of the medium as reported in the literature (Dunleavy & Dede, 2014). As the field matures and more research teams explore the potential of AR to enhance teaching and learning, it will be critical to determine the design techniques that optimize the unique affordances of AR, minimize the limitations of the medium, and ultimately enhance learning across the curriculum.


Mobile Device Design Principle Augmented Reality Reciprocal Teaching Augmented Reality Game 
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Copyright information

© Association for Educational Communications and Technology 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Matt Dunleavy
    • 1
  1. 1.Radford UniversityVAUSA

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