Advertisement

TechTrends

, Volume 58, Issue 1, pp 28–34 | Cite as

Design Principles for Augmented Reality Learning

  • Matt Dunleavy
Original Paper

Abstract

Augmented reality is an emerging technology that utilizes mobile, context-aware devices (e.g., smartphones, tablets) that enable participants to interact with digital information embedded within the physical environment. This overview of design principles focuses on specific strategies that instructional designers can use to develop AR learning experiences. A review of the literature reveals the following three design principles as instructive: 1. Enable and then challenge (challenge): 2. Drive by gamified story (fantasy); and 3. See the unseen (curiosity). These design principles can also be viewed as an attempt to either leverage the unique affor- dances of AR or minimize the limitations of the medium as reported in the literature (Dunleavy & Dede, 2014). As the field matures and more research teams explore the potential of AR to enhance teaching and learning, it will be critical to determine the design techniques that optimize the unique affordances of AR, minimize the limitations of the medium, and ultimately enhance learning across the curriculum.

Keywords

Mobile Device Design Principle Augmented Reality Reciprocal Teaching Augmented Reality Game 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Azuma, R., Baillot, Y., Behringer, R., Feiner, S., Julier, S., & MacIntyre, B. (2001). Recent advances in augmented reality. IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications. 21 (6), 3447. Computer Society Press Los Alamitos, CA, USACrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Dede, C. (2009). Immersive interfaces for engagement and learning. Science 323(5910), 66–69. doi:  10.1126/science.1167311 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Dunleavy, M., Dede, C., & Mitchell, R. (2009). Affordances and limitations of immersive participatory augmented reality simulations for teaching and learning. Journal of Science Education and Technology, 18 (1), 7–22CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Dunleavy, M. (2010). Persistent Design Challenges: Augmenting Reality for Learning with Wireless Mobile Devices. Invitation Symposia at Society for Information Technology and Teacher Education (SITE). San Diego, CA.Google Scholar
  5. Dunleavy, M. & Simmons, B. (2011). Assessing learning and identity in augmented reality science games. In L. Annetta & S. Bronack (Eds.), Serious educational games assessment (pp. 221–240). Rotterdam, The Netherlands: Sense Publishers.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Dunleavy, M. (2013). [Augmented reality design]. Unpublished raw data.Google Scholar
  7. Dunleavy, M., & Dede, C. (2014). Augmented reality teaching and learning. In M.J. Bishop & J. Elen (Eds.), Handbook of Research on Educational Communications and Technology (4th ed., Volume 2), pp. 735–745. New York: Macmillan.Google Scholar
  8. Facer, K., Joiner, R., Stanton, D., Reid, J., Hull, R., & Kirk, D. (2004). Savannah: mobile gaming and learning? Journal of Computer Assisted Learning, 20, 399–409.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Johnson, L., Smith, R., Willis, H., Levine, A., & Haywood, K., (2011). The 2011 Horizon Report. Austin, Texas: The New Media Consortium.Google Scholar
  10. Kamarainen, A. M., Metcalf, S., Grotzer, T., Brown, A., Mazzuca, D., Tutwiler M.S. & Dede, C., (2013) Eco- MOBILE: Integrating augmented reality and probe- ware with environmental education field trips, Computers & Education.Google Scholar
  11. Klopfer, E., Squire K. & Jenkins H. (2002). Environmental Detectives PDAs as a Window into a Virtual Simulated World. International Workshop on Wireless and Mobile Technologies in Education.Google Scholar
  12. Klopfer, E. & Squire, K. (2008). Environmental Detectives - the development of an augmented reality platform for environmental simulations. Educational Technology Research and Development, 56 (2), 203–228.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Klopfer, E. & Sheldon, J. (2010), Augmenting your own reality: Student authoring of science-based augmented reality games. New Directions for Youth Development, 128 (Winter), 85–94. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Malone, T W (1981). Toward a theory of intrinsically motivating instruction.Cognitive science, 5(4), 333–369.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. O’Shea, P, Mitchell, R., Johnston, C., & Dede, C. (2009). Lessons learned about designing augmented realities. International Journal of Gaming and Computer-Mediated Simulations. 1 (1), 1–15.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Palincsar, A. S. (1998). Social constructivist perspectives on teaching and learning. Annual Review of Psychology, 49, 345–375.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Perry, J., Klopfer, E., Norton, M., Sutch, D., Sandford, R., Facer, K. (2008). AR gone wild: two approaches to using augmented reality learning games in Zoos. Proceedings of the 8th international conference on International conference for the learning sciences, The Netherlands, 322329.Google Scholar
  18. Schell, J. (2008). The Art of Game Design: A book of lenses. Taylor & Francis US.Google Scholar
  19. Spelman, H., & Hunnewell, J. F. (1872). Relation of Virginia. JF Hunnewell.Google Scholar
  20. Squire, K. (2010). From Information to Experience: Place- Based Augmented Reality Games as a Model for Learning in a Globally Networked Society. Teachers College Record, 112 (10), pp. 2565–2602.Google Scholar
  21. Squire, K.D., Jan, M., Matthews, J., Wagler, M., Martin, J., Devane, B. & Holden, C. (2007). Wherever you go, there you are: The design of local games for learning. In B. Sheldon & D. Wiley (Eds). The design and use of simulation computer games in education, (pp. 265–296). Rotterdam, Netherlands: Sense Publishing.Google Scholar
  22. Woodard, Buck. (2005). Appendix A: Natives in the landscape: Images and documents of seventeenth century Virginia Indians in A Study of Virginia Indians and Jamestown: The First Century. Prepared for the Colonial National Historical Park. National Park Service: Williamsburg. Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Association for Educational Communications and Technology 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Matt Dunleavy
    • 1
  1. 1.Radford UniversityVAUSA

Personalised recommendations