, Volume 51, Issue 4, pp 20–31 | Cite as

Designing for Deep and Meaningful Student-to-Content Interactions

Supporting students’ cognitive processing in online courses:


Severe Disability Distance Education Content Interaction Cognitive Presence Constructive Interaction 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Allen, I., & Seaman, J. (2005). Growing by degrees: Online education in the United States, 2005. Report sponsored by The Sloan Consortium.Google Scholar
  2. Anderson, T. (2002, May). An updated and theoretical rationale for interaction. IT Forum Paper #63. Athabasca University.Google Scholar
  3. Anderson, L., & Krathwohl, D. (Eds.) (2001). A taxonomy for learning, teaching and assessing: A revision of Bloom’s Taxonomy of Educational Objectives. New York: Longman.Google Scholar
  4. Bender, T. (2003). Discussion-based online teaching to enhance student learning: Theory, practice, and assessment. Sterling, VA: Stylus.Google Scholar
  5. Boettcher, J. (2000, March). The state of distance education in the U.S.: Surprising realities. Syllabus, 13, 36–40.Google Scholar
  6. Chen, Y. (2001). Dimensions of transactional distance in the World Wide Web learning environment: A factor analysis. British Journal of Educational Technology, 32(4), 459–470.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Dewey, J. (1933). How we think (rev. ed.). Boston, MA: DC Heath.Google Scholar
  8. Dunlap, J., & Grabinger, R. S. (2003). Preparing students for lifelong learning: A review of instructional methodologies. Performance Improvement Quarterly, 16(2), 6–25.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Foshay, R., & Bergeron, C. (2000). Web-based education: A reality check. TechTrends, 44(5), 16–19.Google Scholar
  10. Garrison, D. R. (2003). Cognitive presence for effective asynchronous online learning: The role of reflective inquiry, self-direction and metacognition. In J. Bourne & J. Moore (Eds.), Elements of quality online education: Practice and direction. Volume 4 in the Sloan C Series, Needham, MA: The Sloan Consortium. Retrieved July 18, 2005, from Google Scholar
  11. Garrison, D. R., & Anderson, T. (2003). E-learning in the 21 st century: A framework for research and practice. London, UK: RoutledgeFarmer.Google Scholar
  12. Garrison, D. R., Anderson, T., & Archer, W. (1999). Critical thinking in a text-based environment: Computer conferencing in higher education. Internet and Higher Education, 2(2–3), 87–105.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Garrison, D. R., Anderson, T., Archer, W. (2001). Critical thinking, cognitive presence, and computer conferencing in distance education. American Journal of Distance Education, 15(1), 7–23Google Scholar
  14. Hannafin, M., Hill, J., & Land, S. (1997). Student-centered learning and interactive multimedia: Status, issues, and implications. Contemporary Education, 68(2), 94–99.Google Scholar
  15. Hillman, D., Willis, D., & Gunawardena, C. (1994). Learner-interface interaction in distance education: An extension of contemporary models and strategies for practitioners. American Journal of Distance Education, 8(2), 30–42.Google Scholar
  16. Holmberg, B. (1993). Key issues in distance education: An academic viewpoint. In Harry, K. John, M., & Keegan, D. (Eds.), Distance education: New perspectives. London, UK: Routledge.Google Scholar
  17. Janicki, T., & Liegle, J. (2001). Development and evaluation of a framework for creating web-based learning modules: A pedagogical and systems approach. Journal of Asynchronous Learning Networks, 5(1). Available: http://www.
  18. Jensen, L. (1998). Interaction in distance education. Available:
  19. Jonassen, D. (1985). The technology of text (Vol. 2). Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Educational Technology Publications.Google Scholar
  20. Kearsley, G., & Shneiderman, B. (1998). Engagement theory: A framework for technology-based teaching and learning. Educational Technology, 38(5), 20–23.Google Scholar
  21. Kennedy, G. (2004). Promoting cognition in multimedia interactivity research. Journal of Interactive Learning Research, 15(1), 43–61.Google Scholar
  22. Ludwig-Hardman, S., & Dunlap, J. (2003). Learner support services for online students: Scaffolding for success. The International Review of Research in Open and Distance Learning, 4(1). Retrieved October 15, 2006, from
  23. Lynch, M. M. (2002). The online educator: A guide to creating the virtual classroom. New York: RoutledgeFalmer.Google Scholar
  24. Moore, M. G. (1989). Three types of interaction [Electronic version]. The American Journal of Distance Education, 3(2). Retrieved September 21, 1999, from
  25. Moore, M., & Kearsley, G. (2005). Distance education: A systems view (2nd edition). Belmont, CA: Thomson Wadsworth.Google Scholar
  26. Muirhead, B. (2004). Encouraging interaction in online classes [Electronic Version]. International Journal of Instructional Technology and Distance Learning, 1. Retrieved March 21, 2007 from
  27. Northrup, P. (2001). A framework for designing interactivity into web-based instruction. Educational Technology, 41(2), 31–9.Google Scholar
  28. Oliver, R., Omari, A., & Ring, J. (1998). Connecting and engaging learners with the WWW. In B. Black & N. Stanley (Eds.), Teaching and learning in changing times: Proceedings of the 7th annual teaching learning forum (pp. 237–241), Perth: The University of Western Australia.Google Scholar
  29. Paul, R. (1990). Critical thinking. Rohnert Park, CA: Sonoma State University.Google Scholar
  30. Phipps, R., & Merisotis, J. (1999). What’s the difference? A review of contemporary research on the effectiveness of distance learning in higher education. Washington, DC: Institute of Higher Education Policy.Google Scholar
  31. Shale, D., & Garrison, D. R. (1990). Introduction. In D. R. Garrison & D. Shale (Eds.), Education at a distance (pp. 23–39). Malabar, FL: Robert E. Kreiger Publishing Company.Google Scholar
  32. Shortridge, A. (2001, March). Interactive web-based instruction: What is it? And how can it be achieved? Journal of Instructional Science and Technology, 4(1) [Online]. Available:
  33. Sims, R. (1997). Interactive learning as an “emerging” technology: A reassessment of interactive and instructional design strategies. Australian Journal of Educational Technology, 13(1), 68–84.Google Scholar
  34. Stouppe, J. (1998). Measuring interactivity. Performance Improvement, 37(9), 19–23.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Thurmond, V. (2003). Examination of interaction variables as predictors of students’ satisfaction and willingness to enroll in future Web-based courses. Doctoral dissertation. University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, KS.Google Scholar
  36. Uttendorfer, M. (2003). Interactivity in an online course: Making it more than page turning. In G. Richards (Ed.), Proceedings of world conference on e-learning in corporate, government, healthcare, and higher education (pp. 147–149). Chesapeake, VA: AACE.Google Scholar
  37. Vygotsky, L. S. (1978). Mind in society: The development of higher psychological processes. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University.Google Scholar
  38. Wagner, E. (1994). In support of a functional definition of interaction. The American Journal of Distance Education, 8(2), 6–29.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Waits, T., Lewis, L. and Greene, B. (2003, July). Distance education at degree-granting postsecondary institutions: 2000–2001. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics. [NCES 2003-017]. Retrieved on June 1, 2005 from Google Scholar
  40. Whitehead, A. (1929). The aims of education. New York: Macmillan.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Association for Educational Communications & Technology 2007

Personalised recommendations