Doubled up all over again: borrowing, sound change and reduplication in Iwaidja Original Paper First Online: 10 November 2009 Received: 02 January 2008 Accepted: 02 March 2009 DOI:
Cite this article as: Evans, N. Morphology (2009) 19: 159. doi:10.1007/s11525-009-9139-4 Abstract
This article examines the interactions between reduplication, sound change, and borrowing, as played out in the Iwaidja language of Cobourg Peninsula, Arnhem Land, in Northern Australia, a non-Pama-Nyungan language of the Iwaidjan family. While Iwaidja traditionally makes use of (various types of) right-reduplication, contact with two other left-reduplicating languages—one Australian (Bininj Gun-wok) and one Austronesian (Makassarese)—has led to the introduction of several (non-productive) left-reduplicating patterns. At the same time as these new patterns have been entering the language, the cumulative effect of sweeping sound changes within Iwaidja has complicated the transparency of reduplicative outputs. This has left the language with an extremely varied and complicated set of reduplication types, for some of which the analysis is no longer synchronically recoverable by children.
Keywords Australian languages Iwaidja Language contact Directionality Makassarese Reanalysis References
Aikhenvald A.Y., Dixon R.M.W. (2001) Areal diffusion and genetic inheritance. OUP, Oxford
Alpher B., Nash D. (1999) Lexical replacement and cognate equilibrium in Australia. Australian Journal of Linguistics 19(1): 5–56
CrossRef Google Scholar
Arief A. (1995) Kamus Makassar-Indonesia. Yayasan Perguruan Islam Kapita, Ujung Pandang
Birch, B. (in preparation). The prosodic phonology of Iwaidja. Ph.D. Thesis. University of Melbourne, Melbourne.
Butcher, A., Birch B., Evans N. & Fletcher J. (2007). Stopped laterals in Iwaidja. Talk presented at Workshop on the phonology of Australian languages. LaTrobe University, December 2007.
Cense A.A. (1979) Makassaars-Nederlands Woordenboek. Martinus Nijhoff, ‘s Gravenhage
Evans N. (1992) Macassan loans in Top End languages. Australian Journal of Linguistics 12(1): 45–91
CrossRef Google Scholar
Evans N. (1997) Macassan loans and linguistic stratigraphy among the Iwaidjan languages. In: McConvell P., Evans N. (eds) Archaeology and linguistics: Global perspectives on ancient Australia.. OUP, Melbourne, pp 237–259
Evans, N. (1998). Iwaidja mutation and its origins. In J. J. Song & A. Sierwierska (Eds.),
Case, typology and grammar: In honour of Barry J. Blake (pp. 115–150). Amsterdam: John Benjamins.
Evans N. (2000) Iwaidjan, a very un-Australian language family. Linguistic Typology 4(2): 91–142
Evans N. (2003) Bininj Gun-wok. A pan-dialectal grammar of Mayali, Kunwinjku and Kune. Pacific Linguistics, Canberra
Fabricius A.H. (1998) A comparative study of reduplication in Australian languages. Lincom Europa, München
Hamilton, P. J. (1996). Phonetic constraints and markedness in the phonotactics of Australian Aboriginal languages. PhD thesis. University of Toronto, Toronto.
Inkelas S., Zoll C. (2005) Reduplication Doubling in morphology. CUP, Cambridge
Jukes, A. (2006). Makassarese (basa Mangkasara’). A description of an Austronesian language of South Sulawesi. Unpublished Ph.D. Thesis. University of Melbourne, Melbourne.
McConvell, P. (1988). Nasal cluster dissimilation and constraints on phonological variables in Gurindji and related languages. In N. Evans & S. Johnson (Eds.)
Aboriginal linguistics 1 (vol. 1, pp. 135–165). Armidale: University of New England.
MacKnight C. (1976) The voyage to Marege’. Macassan trepangers in Northern Australia. Melbourne University Press, Melbourne
Pym, N. & Larrimore, B. (1979).
Papers on Iwaidja Phonology and Grammar, Series A, Vol. 2. Darwin: SIL-AAB.
Teo, A. (2007). Breaking up is hard to do. Teasing apart morphological complexity in Iwaidja and Mawng. Honours Thesis. School of Languages and Linguistics. University of Melbourne. [Downloadable from U. Melbourne eprints repository].
Wilkins, D. (1989). Mparntwe Arrernte (Aranda): Studies in the structure and semantics of grammar. Unpublished Ph.D. Dissertation, Australian National University.
© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2009