Concept Mapping: Engaging Urban Men to Understand Community Influences on Partner Violence Perpetration
Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a significant health concern rooted in community experiences and other social determinants. The purpose of this study is to understand community-based risk and protective factors of IPV perpetration through participatory research that engages men who use IPV. Secondarily, we assess the relative influence, as measured by ranking, of these factors regarding risk of IPV perpetration and stress. We conducted concept mapping with Baltimore men (n = 28), ages 18 and older, enrolled in an abuse intervention program (AIP), through partnership with a domestic violence agency. Concept mapping, a three-phase participatory process, generates ideas around an issue then visually presents impactful domains via multi-dimensional scaling and hierarchical clustering. Most participants were Black (87.5%) and 20–39 years old (75%). Seven key domains, or clusters, were established. “No hope for the future” was the greatest contributor to IPV perpetration. “Socioeconomic struggles” (i.e., lack of employment) and “life in Baltimore” (i.e., homicide) were most likely to result in stress. Emergent domains related to IPV perpetration and stress were ranked similarly, but with some nuance. Having good support systems (i.e., family, community centers) were felt to prevent IPV and reduce stress. This participant-driven process among a primarily young, Black sample of Baltimore men speaks to the influence of perceived social disempowerment and underlying trauma on intimate relationships and the potential for mitigation. Few studies have engaged men who use IPV through participatory research to understand the comprehensive dynamics of an impoverished, urban environment. Results provide direction for community-based intervention and prevention programming to increase self-efficacy, particularly among younger men, and to enact trauma-informed violence prevention policy from the perspectives of male IPV perpetrators.
KeywordsIntimate partner violence Violence perpetration Social determinants Urban health Concept mapping Men Participatory research
We gratefully acknowledge the Gateway Project and administrative staff at House of Ruth Maryland, Baltimore, MD, for their partnership and invaluable support with this study. John Miller, Guy Matthews, and Anne Marie Brokmeier provided invaluable research assistance. We also thank Drs. Patricia O’Campo and Alisa Velonis for their research guidance.
This study was supported with funding from the Urban Health Institute at Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health (Holliday), Health Resources and Services Administration, Maternal and Child Health Bureau (T76MC00003), National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (T32HD06442), and National Institute on Minority Health and Health Disparities (1L60MD012089-01—Holliday).
Compliance with Ethical Standards
The Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health Institutional Review Board approved all data collection procedures.
- 1.Black MC, Basile KC, Breiding MJ, et al. The National Intimate Partner and Sexual Violence Survey (NISVS): 2010 Summary Report. Atlanta, GA: National Center for Injury Prevention and Control, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention; 2011.Google Scholar
- 2.Miller E, Decker MR, McCauley HL, et al. Pregnancy coercion, intimate partner violence and unintended pregnancy. Contraception. 2010;81(4):316–22. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.contraception.2009.12.004.Google Scholar
- 5.Black MC, Basile KC, Smith SG, et al. National intimate partner and sexual violence survey 2010 summary report. Natl Cent Inj Prev Control Centers Dis Control Prev. 2010:1–124.Google Scholar
- 8.Miller E, Jordan B, Levenson R, Silverman JG. Reproductive coercion: connecting the dots between partner violence and unintended pregnancy. Contraception. 2010;81(6):457–459. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.contraception.2010.02.023.
- 11.Reed E, Lawrence DA, Santana MC, Welles CSL, Horsburgh CR, Silverman JG, et al. Adolescent experiences of violence and relation to violence perpetration beyond young adulthood among an urban sample of Black and African American males. J Urban Health. 2014;91(1):96–106. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11524-013-9805-z.Google Scholar
- 13.World Health Organization. Understanding and addressing violence against women: intimate partner violence. World Health Organization,; 2012. http://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/10665/77432/1/WHO_RHR_12.36_eng.pdf. Accessed 24 July 2018.
- 16.Kamndaya M, Pisa PT, Chersich MF, Decker MR, Olumide A, Acharya R, et al. Intersections between polyvictimisation and mental health among adolescents in five urban disadvantaged settings: the role of gender. BMC Public Health. 2017;17(S3):41–50. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12889-017-4348-y.Google Scholar
- 19.Gomez MB. Policing, community fragmentation, and public health: observations from Baltimore. 2016;93:154–67. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11524-015-0022-9.
- 22.Reed E, Silverman JG, Welles SL, Santana MC, Missmer SA, Raj A. Associations between perceptions and involvement in neighborhood violence and intimate partner violence perpetration among urban, African American men. J Community Health. 2009;34(4):328–35. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10900-009-9161-9.Google Scholar
- 23.Raj A, Reed E, Santana MC, Welles SL, Horsburgh CR, Flores SA, et al. History of incarceration and gang involvement are associated with recent sexually transmitted disease/HIV diagnosis in African American men. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2008;47(1):131–4. https://doi.org/10.1097/QAI.0b013e31815a5731.Google Scholar
- 24.Fleming PJ, McCleary-Sills J, Morton M, Levtov R, Heilman B, Barker G. Risk factors for men’s lifetime perpetration of physical violence against intimate partners: results from the international men and gender equality survey (IMAGES) in eight countries. PLoS One. 2015;10(3):1–18. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0118639.Google Scholar
- 25.Gabriel NC, Sloand E, Gary F, Hassan M, Bertrand DR, Campbell J. “The women, they maltreat them… therefore, we cannot assure that the future society will be good”: male perspectives on gender-based violence: a focus group study with young men in Haiti. Health Care Women Int. 2016;37(7):773–89. https://doi.org/10.1080/07399332.2015.1089875.Google Scholar
- 28.Reed E, Silverman JG, Ickovics JR, Gupta J, Welles SL, Santana MC, et al. Experiences of racial discrimination & relation to violence perpetration and gang involvement among a sample of urban African American men. J Immigr Minor Health. 2010;12(3):319–26. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10903-008-9159-x.Google Scholar
- 35.Patel V, Burns JK, Dhingra M, Tarver L, Kohrt BA, Lund C. Income inequality and depression: a systematic review and meta-analysis of the association and a scoping review of mechanisms. 2018;17:76–89. https://doi.org/10.1002/wps.20492.
- 43.Mach JL, Cantos AL, Weber EN, Kosson DS. The impact of perpetrator characteristics on the completion of a partner abuse intervention program. J Interpers Violence. 2017:088626051771990. https://doi.org/10.1177/0886260517719904.
- 46.Investigation of the Baltimore City Police Department.; 2016. https://www.justice.gov/opa/file/883366/download. Accessed 24 July 2018.
- 48.Decker MR, Peitzmeier S, Olumide A, Acharya R, Ojengbede O, Covarrubias L, et al. Prevalence and health impact of intimate partner violence and non-partner sexual violence among female adolescents aged 15-19 years in vulnerable urban environments: a multi-country study. J Adolesc Health. 2014;55(6):S58–67. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jadohealth.2014.08.022.Google Scholar
- 49.Burke JG, Steven AM, editors. Methods for community public health research: integrated and engaged approaches. New York, NY: Springer Publishing Company; 2014.Google Scholar
- 50.Burke JG, Campo PO, Peak GL, Gielen AC, Mcdonnell KA, Trochim WMK. An introduction to concept mapping as a participatory public health research method. 2005;15(10):1392–1410. doi: https://doi.org/10.1177/1049732305278876
- 51.Burke JG, Campo PO, Peak GL. Neighborhood influences and intimate partner violence: does geographic setting matter? 2006;83(2):182–194. doi: https://doi.org/10.1007/s11524-006-9031-z
- 53.Campo PO, Salmon C, Burke J. Neighbourhoods and mental well-being: what are the pathways? 2009;15:56–68. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.healthplace.2008.02.004.
- 54.Kane M, Trochim WMK. In: Bickman L, Rog DJ, editors. Concept mapping for planning and evaluation. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications; 2007.Google Scholar
- 55.Robinson JM, Trochim WMK. An examination of community members ’, researchers ’ and health professionals ’ perceptions of barriers to minority participation in medical research: an application of concept mapping an examination of community members ’, Researchers ’ and Health Profe 2007;7858(May 2016). https://doi.org/10.1080/13557850701616987
- 56.Concept Systems I. The Concept System Global MAX. 2016.Google Scholar
- 58.Connell R. Masculinities. 2nd ed. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press; 2005.Google Scholar
- 60.Frye V, Shanon B, Magdalena C, Vlahov D, Galea S, Ompad DC. Neighborhood characteristics and sexual intimate partner violence against women among low-income, drug-involved New York City residents: results from the impact studies. Violence Against Women. 2015;20(7):799–824. https://doi.org/10.1177/1077801214543501.NEIGHBORHOOD.Google Scholar
- 61.Giurgescu C, Zenk SN, Dancy BL, Park CG, Dieber W, Block R. Relationships among neighborhood environment, racial discrimination, psychological distress, and preterm birth in African American women. J Obstet Gynecol Neonatal Nurs. 2012;41(6):E51–61. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1552-6909.2012.01409.x.Google Scholar
- 65.Miller E, Decker MR, Reed E, Raj A, Hathaway JE, Silverman JG. Male partner pregnancy-promoting behaviors and adolescent partner violence: findings from a qualitative study with adolescent females. Ambul Pediatr. 2007;7(5):28–33.Google Scholar
- 68.Kane M, Trochim WMK. Concept mapping for planning and evaluation. Vol 50.; 2007. https://doi.org/10.4135/9781412983730