Journal of Urban Health

, Volume 95, Issue 4, pp 499–507 | Cite as

Assessing the Effect of Recent Incarceration in Prison on HIV Care Retention and Viral Suppression in Two States

  • Michael CostaEmail author
  • Brian T. Montague
  • Liza Solomon
  • Cara Sammartino
  • Roee Gutman
  • Chava Zibman
  • David Rosen
  • Josiah D. Rich


The prevalence of HIV among people in correctional facilities remains much higher than that of the general population. Numerous studies have demonstrated the effectiveness and acceptability of HIV treatment for individuals incarcerated in US prisons and jails. However, the period following incarceration is characterized by significant disruptions in HIV care. These disruptions include failure to link in a timely manner (or at all) to community care post-release, as well as not being retained in care after linking. We used a retrospective, propensity-matched cohort design to compare retention in care between HIV-positive individuals recently released from prison (releasees) who linked to care in Ryan White HIV/AIDS Program (RWHAP) clinics and RWHAP patients without a recent incarceration history (community controls). We also performed analyses comparing viral load suppression of those retained in both groups. This study shows that even for those who do successfully link to care after prison, they are 24 to 29 percentage points less likely to be retained in care than those already in community care. However, we found that for those who did retain in care, there was no disparity in rates of viral suppression. These findings provide valuable insight regarding how best to address challenges associated with ensuring that HIV-positive individuals leaving prison successfully move through the HIV care continuum to become virally suppressed.


HIV/AIDS Prisoner re-entry HIV care continuum Retention in HIV care HIV viral suppression Ryan White HIV/AIDS program Health disparities 



We gratefully acknowledge the support of the personnel at the Rhode Island and North Carolina prison systems who facilitated this project, including Fritz Vohr, MD, Jeff Renzi, Jacquelyn Clymore and David Edwards. We also would like to acknowledge the LINCS advisory board for its support of this work including Joanna Buffington, MD, Peter Leone, MD, A. T. Wall, JD.

Funding Information

This research was supported by the NIDA Grant R01DA 030778.


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Copyright information

© The New York Academy of Medicine 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Abt Associates, Inc.CambridgeUSA
  2. 2.School of Public Health, and Warren Alpert School of MedicineBrown UniversityProvidenceUSA
  3. 3.University of North Carolina at Chapel HillChapel HillUSA

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