Journal of Urban Health

, Volume 91, Issue 5, pp 836–850 | Cite as

Do Men Need Empowering Too? A Systematic Review of Entrepreneurial Education and Microenterprise Development on Health Disparities among Inner-City Black Male Youth

Article

Abstract

Economic strengthening through entrepreneurial and microenterprise development has been shown to mitigate poverty-based health disparities in developing countries. Yet, little is known regarding the impact of similar approaches on disadvantaged U.S. populations, particularly inner-city African-American male youth disproportionately affected by poverty, unemployment, and adverse health outcomes. A systematic literature review was conducted to guide programming and research in this area. Eligible studies were those published in English from 2003 to 2014 which evaluated an entrepreneurial and microenterprise initiative targeting inner-city youth, aged 15 to 24, and which did not exclude male participants. Peer-reviewed publications were identified from two electronic bibliographic databases. A manual search was conducted among web-based gray literature and registered trials not yet published. Among the 26 papers retrieved for review, six met the inclusion criteria and were retained for analysis. None of the 16 registered microenterprise trials were being conducted among disadvantaged populations in the U.S. The available literature suggests that entrepreneurial and microenterprise programs can positively impact youth’s economic and psychosocial functioning and result in healthier decision-making. Young black men specifically benefited from increased autonomy, engagement, and risk avoidance. However, such programs are vastly underutilized among U.S. minority youth, and the current evidence is insufficiently descriptive or rigorous to draw definitive conclusions. Many programs described challenges in securing adequate resources, recruiting minority male youth, and sustaining community buy-in. There is an urgent need to increase implementation and evaluation efforts, using innovative and rigorous designs, to improve the low status of greater numbers of African-American male youth.

Keywords

Entrepreneurship Microenterprise development Black/African-American Inner-city Men Youth Health disparities 

References

  1. 1.
    Prather C, Marshall K, Courtenay-Quirk C, et al. Addressing poverty and HIV using microenterprise: findings from qualitative research to reduce risk among unemployed or underemployed African American women. J Health Care Poor Underserved. 2012; 23(3): 1266–1279.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Cui RR, Lee R, Thirumurthy H, Muessing KE, Tucker JD. Microenterprise development interventions for sexual risk reduction: a systematic review. AIDS Behav. 2013; 17: 2864–2877.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Hashemi S, Schuler S, Riley AP. Rural credit programs and women’s empowerment in Bangladesh. World Dev. 1996; 24(4): 635–653.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Leach F, Abdulla S, Appleton H, et al. The impact of training on women’s micro-enterprise development. Education research paper. Dep Int Dev. 2001; 40: 1–139. Available at: http://www.seepnetwork.org/filebin/pdf/gender/79_Impact_of_Training_on_Womens_Microenterprises.pdf. Accessed Feb 2014.
  5. 5.
    Agbenyiga DL, Ahmedani BK. Utilizing social work skills to enhance entrepreneurship training for women: a Ghanaian perspective. J Commun Pract. 2008; 16(4): 423–440.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Pronyk PM, Kim JC, Abramsky T, et al. A combined microfinance and training intervention can reduce HIV risk behaviour in young female participants. AIDS. 2008; 22(13): 1659–1665.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Sherman SG, Srikrishnan AK, Rivett KA, Liu SH, Solomon S, Celentano DD. Acceptability of a microenterprise intervention among female sex workers in Chennai, India. AIDS Behav. 2010; 14(3): 649–657.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Kim J, Ferrari G, Abramsky T, et al. Assessing the incremental effects of combining economic and health interventions: the IMAGE study in South Africa. Bull World Health Organ. 2009; 87(11): 824–832.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Rosenberg MS, Seavey BK, Jules R, Kershaw TS. The role of a microfinance program on HIV risk behavior among Haitian women. AIDS Behav. 2011; 15(5): 911–918.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Odek WO, Busza J, Morris CN, Cleland J, Ngugi EN, Ferguson AG. Effects of micro-enterprise services on HIV risk behavior among female sex workers in Kenya’s urban slums. AIDS Behav. 2009; 13(3): 449–461.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Dunbar MS, Maternowska MC, Kang MS, Laver SM, Mudekunye-Mahaka I, Padian NS. Findings from SHAZ!: a feasibility study of a microcredit and life-skills HIV prevention intervention to reduce risk among adolescent female orphans in Zimbabwe. J Prev Interv Commun. 2010; 38(2): 147–161.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Schuler SR, Hashemi SM, Riley AP. The influence of women’s changing roles and status in Bangladesh’s fertility transition: evidence from a study of credit programs and contraceptive use. World Dev. 1997; 25(4): 563–575.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Norwood C. Women, microcredit and family planning practices: a case study from rural Ghana. J Asian Afr Stud. 2011; 46(2): 169–183.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Odutolu O, Adedimeji A, Odutolu O, Baruwa O, Olatidoye F. Economic empowerment and reproductive behaviour of young women in Osun state, Nigeria. Afr J Reprod Health. 2003; 7(3): 92–100.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Hamad R, Fernald LCJ. Microcredit participation and nutrition outcomes among women in Peru. Epidemiol Commun Health. 2012; 66(6): e1.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Mohindra K, Haddad S, Narayana D. Can microcredit help improve the health of poor women? Some findings from a cross-sectional study in Kerala, India. Int J Equity Health. 2008; 7: 2.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Aspy CB, Vesely SK, Oman RF, et al. School-related assets and youth risk behaviors: alcohol consumption and sexual activity. J Sch Health. 2012; 82(1): 3–10.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Fink A, Blevins J. Community transformation through the empowerment of young people: youth entrepreneurship as programmatic and policy response to racial and ethnic economic inequality. University of Minnesota. 4th World Conference on Remedies to Racial and Ethnic Economic Inequality. 2012. Abstract. Accessed at: http://www.hhh.umn.edu/centers/rwc/conferences/fourth/pdf/FinkandBlevins-Abstract.pdf. Accessed Jan 2014.
  19. 19.
    McCammon SL. Systems of care as asset-building communities: implementing strengths-based planning and positive youth development. Am J Community Psychol. 2012; 49(3–4): 556–565.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Black Star Project. The silent genocide—facts about the deepening plight of black men in America. 2010. Available at: http://www.blackstarproject.org/home/images/facts/deepeningplightblackmeninamerica.pdf. Accessed Feb 2014.
  21. 21.
    Brewer RA, Magnus M, Kuo I, Wang L, Liu TY, Mayer KH. The high prevalence of incarceration history among black men who have sex with men in the United States: associations and implications. Am J Public Health. 2014; 104(3): 448–454.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    U.S. Census Bureau, Income, Poverty, and Health Insurance Coverage in the United States: 2009, Current Population Reports, P60-238, and Detailed Tables—Table 713. People Below Poverty Level by Selected Characteristics: 2009. Available at: http://www.census.gov/compendia/statab/2012/tables/12s0713.pdf. Accessed Mar 2014.
  23. 23.
    Harris L. Feel the Heat! The unrelenting challenge of young black male unemployment. Policies and practices that could make a difference. CLASP. 2013. Available at: http://www.clasp.org/resources-and-publications/files/Feel-the-Heat_Web.pdf. Accessed Feb 2014.
  24. 24.
    United States Department of Labor. Bureau of Labor Statistics. 2013–2014. Table A-2. Employment status of the civilian population by race, sex, and age. Household data. Available at: http://www.bls.gov/news.release/empsit.t02.htm. Accessed Mar 2014.
  25. 25.
    Gwadz MV, Gostnell K, Smolenski C, et al. The initiation of homeless youth into the street economy. J Adolesc. 2009; 32(2): 357–377.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Ferguson KM, Bender K, Thompson S, Xie B, Pollio D. Correlates of street-survival behaviors in homeless young adults in four U.S. cities. Am J Orthopsychiatry. 2011; 81(3): 401–409.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Rich JA, Grey CM. Pathways to recurrent trauma among young Black men: traumatic stress, substance use, and the “code of the street”. Am J Public Health. 2005; 95(5): 816–824.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Aral SO, Adimora AA, Fenton KA. Understanding and responding to disparities in HIV and other sexually transmitted infections in African Americans. Lancet. 2008; 372(9635): 337–340.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Estimated HIV incidence in the United States, 2007–2010. HIV Surveill Suppl Rep. 2012; 17(4): 1–26. Available at URL: http://www.cdc.gov/hiv/topics/surveillance/resources/reports. Accessed Jan 2014.
  30. 30.
    Raj A, Reed E, Santana MC, Walley AY, Welles SL, Horsburgh CR, Flores SA, Silverman JG. The associations of binge alcohol use with HIV/STI risk and diagnosis among heterosexual African American men. Drug Alcohol Depend. 2009; 101(1–2): 101–106.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Perkins DE, Kelly P, Lasiter S. “Our depression is different”: experiences and perceptions of depression in young Black men with a history of incarceration. Arch Psychiatr Nurs. 2014; 28(3): 167–173.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Hennekens CH, Drowos J, Levine RS. Mortality from homicide among young Black men: a new American tragedy. Am J Med. 2013; 126(4): 282–283.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Murphy SL, Xu J, Kochanek KD. Division of Vital Statistics. National Vital Statistics Report. Deaths: final data 2010. 2013. 61(4): 1–118. Available at URL: http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/fastats/black-health.htm. Accessed Jan 2014.
  34. 34.
    Thorpe RJ Jr, Wilson-Frederick SM, Bowie JV, Coa K, Clay OJ, LaVeist TA, Whitfield KE. Health behaviors and all-cause mortality in African American men. Am J Mens Health. 2013; 7(4 Suppl): 8S–18S.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Liang CL, Dunn P. Entrepreneurship education for rural, inner city, and underserved youth groups: opportunities, barriers and comparative experiences. 2002. Accessed at: http://sbaer.uca.edu/research../sbida/2002/Papers/36.pdf. Accessed Mar 2014.
  36. 36.
    Daniel TA, Kent CA. An assessment of youth entrepreneurship programs in the United States. J Priv Enterp. 2005; 20(2): 1–21.Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Kugler J. Entrepreneurship training for inner city youth. Session EN 401–114. Proceedings of the 2006 IJME-INTERTECH Conference. Available at: http://www.hydeparkcps.org/ourpages/auto/2008/2/1/1201914899385/entrepreneurship%20training%20ijme%20-%202006.pdf. Accessed Feb 2014.
  38. 38.
    Prince JD. Promoting consumer empowerment through entrepreneurship: a proposal. Psychiatr Rehabil J. 2007; 30(3): 223–225.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Eddy JM, Stellefson ML. Entrepreneurship in health education and health promotion: five cardinal rules. Health Promot Pract. 2009; 10(3): 333–341.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Correia M, Bannon I. The other half of gender: men’s issues in development [Internet]. Washington (DC): World Bank; 2006. Available at: http://documents.worldbank.org/curated/en/2006/01/6868706/other-half-gender. Accessed Jan 2014.
  41. 41.
    Tersbøl B. ‘I just ended up here, no job and no health…’—men’s outlook on life in the context of economic hardship and HIV/AIDS in Namibia. SAHARA J. 2006; 3(1): 403–416.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Skovdal M, Campbell C, Nyamukapa C, Gregson S. When masculinity interferes with women’s treatment of HIV infection: a qualitative study about adherence to antiretroviral therapy in Zimbabwe. J Int AIDS Soc. 2011; 9: 14–29.Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    George-Buanne S. To empower women, don’t forget the men. May 17, 2013. Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation. Impatient Optimists. Accessed at: http://www.impatientoptimists.org/Posts/2013/05/To-Empower-Women-Dont-Forget-the-Men. Accessed Mar 2014.
  44. 44.
    Gross K, Mayumana I, Obrist B. “My wife, you are supposed to have a rest now”: an analysis of norms influencing men’s role in prenatal care in south-eastern Tanzania. Anthropol Med. 2013; 20(1): 98–108.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Nieman G. Training entrepreneurs and small business enterprises in South Africa: a situational analysis. Educ Train. 2001; 43(8/9): 445–450.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Portela A. Empowerment of women, men, families and communities: true partners for improving maternal and newborn health. Br Med Bull. 2003; 67(1): 59–72.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Armstrong B, Cohall A. Health promotion with adolescent and young adult males: an empowerment approach. Adolesc Med State Art Rev. 2011; 22(3): 544–580.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Tucker JD, Fenton KA, Peckham R, Peeling RW. Social entrepreneurship for sexual health (SESH): a new approach for enabling delivery of sexual health services among most-at-risk populations. PLoS Med. 2012; 9(7): e1001266.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Yadama G, Sherraden M. Effects of assets on attitudes and behaviors: advance test of a social policy proposal. Soc Work Res. 1995; 20(1): 3–11.Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    Ssewamala FM, Alicea S, Bannon WM, Ismayilova L. A novel economic intervention to reduce HIV risks among school-going AIDS orphans in rural Uganda. J Adolesc Health. 2008; 42(1): 102–104.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Mueller T, Gavin L, Oman R, et al. Youth assets and sexual risk behavior: differences between male and female adolescents. Health Educ Behav. 2010; 37: 343–356.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Benjet C, Hernández-Montoya D, Borges G, et al. Youth who neither study nor work: mental health, education and employment. Salud Publica Mex. 2012; 54(4): 410–417.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Palmer RT, Strayhorn TL. Mastering one’s own fate: non-cognitive factors associated with the success of African American males. N Assoc Stud Affairs Prof J. 2008; 11(1): 126–146.Google Scholar
  54. 54.
    Jacob B. Where the boys aren’t: non-cognitive skills, returns to school and the gender gap in higher education. Econ Educ Rev. 2002; 21(6): 589–598.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Stratford D, Mizuno Y, Williams K, Courtenay-Quirk C, O’Leary A. Addressing poverty as risk for disease: recommendations from CDC’s consultation on microenterprise as HIV prevention. Pub Health Rep. 2008; 123: 1–20.Google Scholar
  56. 56.
    Dworkin S, Blankenship K. Microfinance and HIV/AIDS prevention: assessing its promise and limitations. AIDS Behav. 2009; 13: 462–469.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Coley RL, Lombardi CM. Low-income women’s employment experiences and their financial, personal, and family well-being. J Fam Psychol. 2014; 28(1): 88–97.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Doucet L, Hiatt-Michael DB. Outcomes of a high school entrepreneurship curriculum. Paper presented at American Educational Research Association, New Orleans, LA. 2011. Available at: http://eric.ed.gov/?id=ED520151. Accessed Feb 2014.
  59. 59.
    Iverson C. Earthkeeping youth entrepreneurial training program. Final project report. Southern New Hampshire University. 2004. Available at: http://academicarchive.snhu.edu/handle/10474/45. Accessed Feb 2014.
  60. 60.
    Miller PM. Youth entrepreneurship at the Robinson Community Learning Center: an evaluation of context, processes, and outcomes. University of Notre Dame, Mendoza College of Business. 2009. Available at: http://rclc.nd.edu/assets/20372/ye.pdf. Accessed Feb 2014.
  61. 61.
    Nakkula M, Lutyens M, Pineda C, Dray A, Gaytan F, Huguley J. Initiating, leading and feeling in control of one’s fate: findings from the 2002–2003 study of the NFTE in six Boston public high schools. 2004. Project IF/NFTE Study. 2002–03 Final Report. Available at: http://www.nfte.com/sites/default/files/harvard-nfte_study_02-03_full_report_6-6-04.pdf. Accessed Feb 2014.
  62. 62.
    Needham CR. A phenomenological study of Detroit inner city youth entrepreneurship programs. University of Phoenix. Dissertation. UMI 3496629. January 2009. Available at: http://gradworks.umi.com/34/96/3496629.html. Accessed Feb 2014.
  63. 63.
    Pierce ML. An evaluation of urban youth gardening program participants’ dietary behaviors, agricultural knowledge, and leadership skills: a case study. University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. Thesis. 2009. Available at: https://www.ideals.illinois.edu/handle/2142/34210. Accessed Feb 2014.
  64. 64.
    Bowleg L. The problem with the phrase women and minorities: intersectionality—an important theoretical framework for public health. Am J Public Health. 2012; 102(7): 1267–1273.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Courtenay WH. Constructions of masculinity and their influence on men’s well-being: a theory of gender and health. Soc Sci Med. 2000; 50(10): 1385–1401.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Griffith DM, Ellis KR, Allen JO. An intersectional approach to social determinants of stress for African American men: men’s and women’s perspectives. Am J Mens Health. 2013; 7(4 Suppl): 19S–30S.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Williams DR. The health of men: structured inequalities and opportunities. Am J Public Health. 2003; 93(5): 724–731.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© The New York Academy of Medicine 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Social and Behavioral Interventions Program, Department of International HealthJohns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public HealthBaltimoreUSA

Personalised recommendations