Journal of Urban Health

, Volume 89, Issue 5, pp 794–801 | Cite as

Directly Observed versus Self-administered Antiretroviral Therapies: Preference of HIV-Positive Jailed Inmates in San Francisco

  • Parya Saberi
  • Nikolai H. Caswell
  • Ross Jamison
  • Milton Estes
  • Jacqueline P. Tulsky
Article

Abstract

Directly observed therapy (DOT) of antiretroviral (ARV) medications has beneficial effects on HIV treatment for incarcerated inmates but has been associated with limited continuation after release and inadvertent disclosure of HIV status. Guided self-administered therapy (g-SAT) may be a preferred method of ARV delivery and may encourage medication-taking behavior. We surveyed the preference of 102 HIV-positive jailed inmates at the San Francisco City and County Jails regarding receiving ARVs via DOT versus g-SAT while incarcerated. Participants overwhelmingly preferred g-SAT over DOT.

Keywords

HIV AIDS Directly observed therapy Self-administered therapy Jail Correctional facility 

References

  1. 1.
    Hammett TM. 1992 Update: HIV/AIDS in correctional facilities: issues and options. In: U.S. Department of Justice: Office of Justice Programs, ed. Washington, D.C.: National Institute of Justice; 1994.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Hammett TM, Gaiter JL, Crawford C. Reaching seriously at-risk populations: health interventions in criminal justice settings. Health Educ Behav. 1998; 25(1): 99–120.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Flanigan TP, Rich JD, Spaulding A. HIV care among incarcerated persons: a missed opportunity. AIDS. 1999; 13(17): 2475–2476.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Maruschak LM. HIV in Prisons, 2007–08. In: U.S. Department of Justice: Office of Justice Programs, ed. Washington, D.C.: Bureau of Justice Statistics; 2009.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    National Commission on Correctional Health Care. The Health Status of Soon-to-be-Released Inmates. A Report to Congress. In: National Commission on Correctional Health Care, ed. Chicago, IL2002.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Spaulding A, Stephenson B, Macalino G, Ruby W, Clarke JG, Flanigan TP. Human immunodeficiency virus in correctional facilities: a review. Clin Infect Dis. 2002; 35(3): 305–312.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Altice FL, Mostashari F, Selwyn PA, et al. Predictors of HIV infection among newly sentenced male prisoners. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr Hum Retrovirol. 1998; 18(5): 444–453.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Dixon PS, Flanigan TP, DeBuono BA, et al. Infection with the human immunodeficiency virus in prisoners: meeting the health care challenge. Am J Med. 1993; 95(6): 629–635.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Puisis M. Update on public health in correctional facilities. West J Med. 1998; 169(6): 374.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Hennessey KA, Kim AA, Griffin V, Collins NT, Weinbaum CM, Sabin K. Prevalence of infection with hepatitis B and C viruses and co-infection with HIV in three jails: a case for viral hepatitis prevention in jails in the United States. J Urban Health. 2009; 86(1): 93–105.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Solomon L, Flynn C, Muck K, Vertefeuille J. Prevalence of HIV, syphilis, hepatitis B, and hepatitis C among entrants to Maryland correctional facilities. J Urban Health. 2004; 81(1): 25–37.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Wilper AP, Woolhandler S, Boyd JW, et al. The health and health care of US prisoners: results of a nationwide survey. Am J Public Health. 2009; 99(4): 666–672.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Fischl M, Rodriguez A, Scerpella E, Monroig R, Thompson L, Rechtine D. Impact of directly observed therapy on outcomes in HIV clinical trials. Paper presented at: 7th Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections. San Francisco, CA; 2000.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Greenberg B, Berkman A, Thomas R, et al. Evaluating supervised HAART in late-stage HIV among drug users: a preliminary report. J Urban Health. 1999; 76(4): 468–480.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Babudieri S, Aceti A, D’Offizi GP, Carbonara S, Starnini G. Directly observed therapy to treat HIV infection in prisoners. JAMA. 2000; 284(2): 179–180.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Small W, Wood E, Betteridge G, Montaner J, Kerr T. The impact of incarceration upon adherence to HIV treatment among HIV-positive injection drug users: a qualitative study. AIDS Care. 2009; 21(6): 708–714.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Pontali E. Antiretroviral treatment in correctional facilities. HIV Clin Trials. 2005; 6(1): 25–37.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Wohl DA, Stephenson BL, Golin CE, et al. Adherence to directly observed antiretroviral therapy among human immunodeficiency virus-infected prison inmates. Clin Infect Dis. 2003; 36(12): 1572–1576.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Rosen DL, Golin CE, Schoenbach VJ, et al. Availability of and access to medical services among HIV-infected inmates incarcerated in North Carolina county jails. J Health Care Poor Underserved. 2004; 15(3): 413–425.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Warren N, Bellin E, Zoloth S, Safyer S. Human immunodeficiency virus infection care is unavailable to inmates on release from jail. Arch Fam Med. 1994; 3(10): 894–898.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Magura S, Kang SY, Shapiro JL, O’Day J. Evaluation of an AIDS education model for women drug users in jail. Int J Addict. 1995; 30(3): 259–273.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Palepu A, Tyndall MW, Chan K, Wood E, Montaner JS, Hogg RS. Initiating highly active antiretroviral therapy and continuity of HIV care: the impact of incarceration and prison release on adherence and HIV treatment outcomes. Antivir Ther. 2004; 9(5): 713–719.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Kerr T, Marshall A, Walsh J, et al. Determinants of HAART discontinuation among injection drug users. AIDS Care. 2005; 17(5): 539–549.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Baillargeon J, Giordano TP, Rich JD, et al. Accessing antiretroviral therapy following release from prison. JAMA. 2009; 301(8): 848–857.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Clements-Nolle K, Marx R, Pendo M, Loughran E, Estes M, Katz M. Highly active antiretroviral therapy use and HIV transmission risk behaviors among individuals who are HIV infected and were recently released from jail. Am J Public Health. 2008; 98(4): 661–666.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Grinstead OA, Faigeles B, Comfort M, et al. HIV, STD, and hepatitis risk to primary female partners of men being released from prison. Women Health. 2005; 41(2): 63–80.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Grinstead O, Comfort M, McCartney K, Koester K, Neilands T. Bringing it home: design and implementation of an HIV/STD intervention for women visiting incarcerated men. AIDS Educ Prev. 2008; 20(4): 285–300.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Morrow KM. HIV, STD, and hepatitis risk behaviors of young men before and after incarceration. AIDS Care. 2009; 21(2): 235–243.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Khan MR, Doherty IA, Schoenbach VJ, Taylor EM, Epperson MW, Adimora AA. Incarceration and high-risk sex partnerships among men in the United States. J Urban Health. 2009; 86(4): 584–601.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Stephenson BL, Wohl DA, McKaig R, et al. Sexual behaviours of HIV-seropositive men and women following release from prison. Int J STD AIDS. 2006; 17(2): 103–108.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Tulsky JP. A Clinical Trial of DOT for HAART in jailed drug users. National Institute of Health: National Institute of Drug Abuse (project number: R01DA013892); 2001–2005.Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Bamberger JD, Unick J, Klein P, Fraser M, Chesney M, Katz MH. Helping the urban poor stay with antiretroviral HIV drug therapy. Am J Public Health. 2000; 90(5): 699–701.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Mocroft A, Vella S, Benfield TL, et al. Changing patterns of mortality across Europe in patients infected with HIV-1. EuroSIDA Study Group. Lancet. 1998; 352(9142): 1725–1730.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Palella FJ Jr, Delaney KM, Moorman AC, et al. Declining morbidity and mortality among patients with advanced human immunodeficiency virus infection. HIV Outpatient Study Investigators. N Engl J Med. 1998; 338(13): 853–860.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Vittinghoff E, Scheer S, O’Malley P, Colfax G, Holmberg SD, Buchbinder SP. Combination antiretroviral therapy and recent declines in AIDS incidence and mortality. J Infect Dis. 1999; 179(3): 717–720.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Antiretroviral Therapy Cohort Collaboration. Life expectancy of individuals on combination antiretroviral therapy in high-income countries: a collaborative analysis of 14 cohort studies. Lancet. 2008; 372(9635): 293–299.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Montaner JS, Hogg R, Wood E, et al. The case for expanding access to highly active antiretroviral therapy to curb the growth of the HIV epidemic. Lancet. 2006; 368(9534): 531–536.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Dieffenbach CW, Fauci AS. Universal voluntary testing and treatment for prevention of HIV transmission. JAMA. 2009; 301(22): 2380–2382.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Wood E, Kerr T, Marshall BD, et al. Longitudinal community plasma HIV-1 RNA concentrations and incidence of HIV-1 among injecting drug users: prospective cohort study. BMJ. 2009; 338: b1649.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Cohen MS, Chen YQ, McCauley M, et al. Prevention of HIV-1 infection with early antiretroviral therapy. N Engl J Med. 2011; 365(6): 493–505.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Spaulding AC, Seals RM, Page MJ, Brzozowski AK, Rhodes W, Hammett TM. HIV/AIDS among inmates of and releasees from US correctional facilities, 2006: declining share of epidemic but persistent public health opportunity. PLoS One. 2009; 4(11): e7558.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Stephenson BL, Wohl DA, Golin CE, Tien HC, Stewart P, Kaplan AH. Effect of release from prison and re-incarceration on the viral loads of HIV-infected individuals. Public Health Rep. 2005; 120(1): 84–88.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Springer SA, Pesanti E, Hodges J, Macura T, Doros G, Altice FL. Effectiveness of antiretroviral therapy among HIV-infected prisoners: reincarceration and the lack of sustained benefit after release to the community. Clin Infect Dis. 2004; 38(12): 1754–1760.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Westergaard RP, Kirk GD, Richesson DR, Galai N, Mehta SH. Incarceration predicts virologic failure for HIV-infected injection drug users receiving antiretroviral therapy. Clin Infect Dis. 2011; 53(7): 725–731.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Panel on Antiretroviral Guidelines for Adults and Adolescents. Guidelines for the use of antiretroviral agents in HIV-1-infected adults and adolescents. In: Department of Health and Human Services, ed; 2011.Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    Adherence to Long-Term Therapies: Evidence for Action. In: World Health Organization, ed. Geneva; 2003.Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    Inciardi JA. HIV risk reduction and service delivery strategies in criminal justice settings. J Subst Abuse Treat. 1996; 13(5): 421–428. discussion 439.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Siegal HA, Carlson RG, Falck R, Reece RD, Perlin T. Conducting HIV outreach and research among incarcerated drug abusers: a case study of ethical concerns and dilemmas. J Subst Abuse Treat. 1993; 10(1): 71–75.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Wakeman SE, McKinney ME, Rich JD. Filling the gap: the importance of Medicaid continuity for former inmates. J Gen Intern Med. 2009; 24(7): 860–862.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    James DJ, Glaze LE, United States. Bureau of Justice Statistics. Mental health problems of prison and jail inmates. Washington, DC: U.S. Dept. of Justice, Office of Justice Programs, Bureau of Justice Statistics; 2006.Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    Binswanger IA, Stern MF, Deyo RA, et al. Release from prison—a high risk of death for former inmates. N Engl J Med. 2007; 356(2): 157–165.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Martin SS, Butzin CA, Saum CA, Inciardi JA. Three-year outcomes of therapeutic community treatment for drug-involved offenders in Delaware: from prison to work release to aftercare. Prison J. 1999; 79: 294–320.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Avins AL, Woods WJ, Lindan CP, Hudes ES, Clark W, Hulley SB. HIV infection and risk behaviors among heterosexuals in alcohol treatment programs. JAMA. 1994; 271(7): 515–518.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Broers B, Morabia A, Hirschel B. A cohort study of drug users’ compliance with zidovudine treatment. Arch Intern Med. 1994; 154(10): 1121–1127.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Wexler HK, Fletcher BW. National Criminal Justice Drug Abuse Treatment Studies (CJ-DATS) overview. Prison J. 2007; 87(1): 9–24.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Kushel MB, Hahn JA, Evans JL, Bangsberg DR, Moss AR. Revolving doors: imprisonment among the homeless and marginally housed population. Am J Public Health. 2005; 95(10): 1747–1752.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Chen NE, Meyer JP, Avery AK, et al. Adherence to HIV treatment and care among previously homeless jail detainees. AIDS Behav. 2012. doi:10.1007/s10461-011-0080-2.
  58. 58.
    Bangsberg DR, Hecht FM, Charlebois ED, et al. Adherence to protease inhibitors, HIV-1 viral load, and development of drug resistance in an indigent population. AIDS. 2000; 14(4): 357–366.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Gifford AL, Bormann JE, Shively MJ, Wright BC, Richman DD, Bozzette SA. Predictors of self-reported adherence and plasma HIV concentrations in patients on multidrug antiretroviral regimens. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2000; 23(5): 386–395.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Chesney MA, Ickovics J, Hecht FM, Sikipa G, Rabkin J. Adherence: a necessity for successful HIV combination therapy. AIDS. 1999; 13(Suppl A): S271–S278.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Blower SM, Aschenbach AN, Gershengorn HB, Kahn JO. Predicting the unpredictable: transmission of drug-resistant HIV. Nat Med. 2001; 7(9): 1016–1020.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© The New York Academy of Medicine 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Parya Saberi
    • 1
  • Nikolai H. Caswell
    • 2
  • Ross Jamison
    • 1
  • Milton Estes
    • 3
  • Jacqueline P. Tulsky
    • 1
  1. 1.University of California, San FranciscoSan FranciscoUSA
  2. 2.San FranciscoUSA
  3. 3.San Francisco Department of Public HealthSan FranciscoUSA

Personalised recommendations