Inter-Rater Reliability of the Food Environment Audit for Diverse Neighborhoods (FEAD-N)
- 349 Downloads
Studies have shown that neighborhood food environments are important influences on dietary intake and may contribute to health disparities. While instruments with high reliability have been developed to assess food availability, price, and quality, few measures to assess items associated with the physical and social features of food stores have been developed. Yet, recent qualitative studies have documented aspects associated with such features of urban food stores that are barriers to food acquisition. We assessed the reliability of measures to assess multiple components of the food environment—including physical and social store features—in three geographically distinct and diverse communities in Detroit, Michigan, using the Food Environment Audit for Diverse Neighborhoods (FEAD-N). Using the FEAD-N, four trained observers conducted observations of 167 food stores over a 10-week period between October and December 2008. To assess inter-rater reliability, two trained observers independently visited, on the same day, a random subset of 44 food stores. Kappa statistics and percent agreement were used to evaluate inter-rater reliability. Overall, the instrument had mostly high inter-rater reliability with more than 75% of items with kappa scores between 0.80 and 1.00, indicating almost perfect reliability. More than half of the physical store features and 47% of the social store features had almost perfect reliability and about 37% and 47%, respectively, had substantial reliability. Measuring factors associated with the physical and social environment of food stores with mostly high reliability is feasible. Systematic documentation of the physical and social features of food stores using objective measures may promote a more comprehensive understanding of how neighborhood food environments influence health.
KeywordsInter-rater reliability Food environment Physical store features Social store features Community-based participatory research
The Healthy Environments Partnership (HEP, www.hepdetroit.org) is affiliated with the Detroit Community-Academic Urban Research Center (www.sph.umich.edu/urc). We thank the HEP Steering Committee for their contributions to the work presented here, including representatives from Brightmoor Community Center, Detroit Department of Health and Wellness Promotion, Detroit Hispanic Development Corporation, Friends of Parkside, Henry Ford Health System, University of Michigan School of Public Health and Survey Research Center, and Warren Conner Development Coalition. We also thank the two anonymous peer reviewers for their insights and detailed suggestions. HEP is funded by the National institute of Environmental Health Science (NIEHS), no. R01 ES10936 and no. R01 ES014234. The results presented here are solely the responsibility of the authors and do not necessarily represent the views of NIEHS.
- 6.Kumar S, Quinn SC, Krista AM, Thomas SB. “Food is directed to the area” African Americans’ perceptions of the neighborhood nutrition environment in Pittsburgh. Health Place. 2010;doi: 10:1016./j.healthplace.2010.11.017
- 15.Baker EA, Schootman M, Barnridge E, Kelly C. The role of race and poverty in access to foods that enable individuals to adhere to dietary guidelines. Preventing Chron Dis. 2006;3(3):A76.Google Scholar
- 21.Zenk SN, Odoms-Young AM, Dallas C, et al. “You have to hunt for the fruits, the vegetables”: environmental barriers and adaptive strategies to acquire food in a low-income African American neighborhood. Health Educ Behav. 2010;doi: 10.1177/1090198110372877.
- 23.Rose D. Captive audience? Strategies for acquiring food in two Detroit neighborhoods. Qual Health Res. 2010;doi: 10.1177/1049732310387159.
- 24.Aylott R, VW M. An exploratory study of grocery shopping stressors. Br Food J. 1998;101(9):683–700.Google Scholar
- 27.Treuhaft S, Hamm MW, Litjens C. Healthy Food for All: Building Equitable and Sustainable Food Systems in Detroit and Oakland. Lansing, MI: PolicyLink, Fair Food Network, and the C.S. Mott Network; 2009.Google Scholar
- 31.Gittelsohn J, Suratkar S, Song HJ, et al. Process evaluation of Baltimore healthy stores: a pilot health intervention program with supermarkets and corner stores in Baltimore City. Health Promot Pract. 2010;11(5):723–732.Google Scholar
- 34.National Cancer Institute. Measures of the food environment. https://riskfactor.cancer.gov/mfe. Accessed June 7, 2011.
- 35.Zenk SN, Schulz AJ, Izumi B, Sand S, Lockett M, Odoms-Young A. Development, evolution, and implementation of a food audit. In: Israel BA, Eng E, Schulz AJ, Parker E, eds. Methods for Conducting Community-based Participatory Research for Health. 2nd ed. San Francisco: Jossey Bass. under review.Google Scholar
- 37.Detroit Department of Health and Wellness Promotion Office of Health Policy Planning and Grants Management. 2004.Google Scholar
- 40.Odoms-Young AM, Zenk S, Chavez N. WIC vendor access and fruit and vegetable availability in Northern Illinois. http://www.ers.usda.gov/briefing/foodnutritionassistance/funding/RIDGEprojectSummary.asp?Summary_ID=187. Accessed February 7, 2010.
- 41.Kittler PG, Sucher K. Food and Culture in America: a Nutrition Handbook. New York, NY: Van Nostrand Reinhold; 2001.Google Scholar
- 42.Grigsby-Toussaint DS, Zenk SN, Odoms-Young A, Bruggiero L, Moise I. Availability of commonly consumed and culturally specific fruits and vegetables in African-American and Latino neighborhoods. J Am Diet Assoc. 2010;110(746–52).Google Scholar
- 43.Ruggiero L, Rodriguez-Sanchez M, Oros S. Translating the Diabetes Prevention Program’s (DPP) lifestyle intervention to the community: Making The Connection Latino Pilot Study. Diabetes. 2007;56(suppl 1):A226.Google Scholar
- 48.Schulz AJ, Israel BA, Coombe C, et al. A community-based participatory planning process and multilevel intervention design: toward eliminating cardiovascular health inequities. Health Promot Pract. 2011;12(6):900–11.Google Scholar
- 56.Gloria CT, Steinhardt MA. Texas nutrition environment assessment of retail food stores (TxNEA-S): development and evaluation. Publ Health Nutr. 2010;doi: 10.1017/S1368980010001588