Risk Factors for Nonfatal Overdose at Seattle-Area Syringe Exchanges
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Opioid-involved overdose deaths are on the rise, both nationwide and in the state of Washington. In a survey of 443 participants at syringe exchanges in Seattle, Washington, 16% had overdosed in the last year. Several factors were significantly associated in bivariate analysis: lack of permanent housing; incarceration of five or more days in the past year; gender of sex partners; sharing of syringes and other injection paraphernalia; use of speedballs (cocaine and heroin together), goofballs (methamphetamine and heroin together), buprenorphine; injection use of crack cocaine and sedatives; and use of opioids with sedatives. Adjusting for other variables in multivariate logistic regression analyses, only recent incarceration and sharing of injection materials were still significantly associated with overdose. Correctional facilities, syringe exchange programs, and other agencies serving opioid injectors should include overdose prevention components in release planning and services.
KeywordsOverdose Injection drug use Heroin Prescription opioids Opiates Needle exchange Syringe exchange
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