Journal of Urban Health

, Volume 87, Issue 2, pp 292–303 | Cite as

Condom Use with Female Sex Workers among Male Clients in Sichuan Province, China: The Role of Interpersonal and Venue-Level Factors

  • Cui Yang
  • Carl Latkin
  • Rongsheng Luan
  • Kenrad Nelson


Commercial sex work has re-emerged as a widespread industry since China started economic reforms in the 1980s. This study examined the role of interpersonal and venue-level factors in commercial sex male clients' (CSMCs) condom use with female sex workers (FSWs) in China. Given the heterogeneity of commercial sex industry in China, this study also aimed to explore how these factors function differently by social ranks of commercial sex work frequented by CSMCs. A cross-sectional survey was conducted with 601 CSMCs in Sichuan province, China. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) prevalence in this sample was 1.7%. In addition to the individual characteristics, interpersonal factor was measured by the frequency of FSWs taking the initiative in condom use and providing condoms. Venue-level factor was assessed by the frequency of the managers of commercial sex venues communicating condom use policies and the frequency of condom availability in commercial sex venues. The primary behavioral outcome was consistent condom use with FSWs. Multivariate logistic regression models revealed that consistent condom use with FSWs was significantly associated with interpersonal (adjusted odds ratio (AOR), 1.62; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.38, 1.90) and venue-level factors (AOR, 1.98; 95% CI, 1.40, 2.80). Moreover, the associations between interpersonal and venue-level factors and consistent condom use were moderated by social ranks of commercial sex work frequented by the male clients. The present study findings underscore the need for comprehensive HIV prevention approaches that integrate individual, interpersonal, and venue-level factors to reduce HIV risk behaviors among CSMCs in China.


Commercial sex male clients Interpersonal factors Venue-level factors Condom use HIV China 


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Copyright information

© The New York Academy of Medicine 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • Cui Yang
    • 1
  • Carl Latkin
    • 1
  • Rongsheng Luan
    • 2
  • Kenrad Nelson
    • 1
  1. 1.Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public HealthBaltimoreUSA
  2. 2.Sichuan University West China School of Public HealthChengduChina

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