Journal of Urban Health

, Volume 87, Issue 2, pp 324–336 | Cite as

Examining the Temporal Relationship Between Criminal Justice Involvement and Sexual Risk Behaviors among Drug-Involved Men

  • Matthew W. Epperson
  • Nabila El-Bassel
  • Mingway Chang
  • Louisa Gilbert
Article

Abstract

Although criminal justice involvement has repeatedly been associated with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/sexually transmitted infection prevalence and sexual risk behaviors, few studies have examined whether arrest or incarceration uniquely contributes to sexually risky behavior. We examined the temporal relationship between criminal justice involvement and subsequent sexual HIV risk among men in methadone maintenance treatment in New York City. A random sample of 356 men was interviewed at baseline (time 1), 6-month (time 2), and 12-month (time 3) follow-ups. Propensity score matching, negative binomial, and multiple logistic regression were used to isolate and test the effect of time 2 arrest and incarceration on time 3 sexual risk behaviors. Incidence of time 2 criminal justice involvement was 20.1% for arrest and 9.4% for incarceration in the prior 6 months. Men who were arrested at time 2 demonstrated increased number (adjusted incidence rate ratio [IRR] = 1.62; 95% confidence intervals [CI] = 1.11, 2.37) and proportion (IRR = 1.36; 95% CI = 1.07, 1.72) of unprotected vaginal sex acts at time 3. Men incarcerated at time 2 displayed increased number (IRR = 2.07; 95% CI = 1.23, 3.48) and proportion (IRR = 1.45; 95% CI = 1.06, 1.99) of unprotected vaginal sex acts at time 3. Within this sample of drug-involved men, arrest and incarceration are temporally associated with and may uniquely impact successive sexual risk-taking. Findings underscore the importance of HIV prevention interventions among individuals with low-intensity criminal justice involvement. Developing prevention efforts aimed at short-term incarceration, community reentry, and alternatives to incarceration settings will address a large and under-researched segment of the criminal justice population. Alternative approaches to current criminal justice policy may result in public health benefits.

Keywords

Criminal justice involvement HIV Sexual risk behavior Methadone Men 

References

  1. 1.
    Seal DW. HIV-related issues and concerns for imprisoned persons throughout the world. Curr Opin Psychiatry. 2005;18:530–535.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Boutwell A, Rich JD. HIV Infection Behind Bars. Clin Infect Dis. 2004;38:1761–1763.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Braithwaite RL, Hammett T, Arriola KRJ. Introduction to the special issue: HIV/AIDS in correctional settings. AIDS Educ Prev. 2002;14:1–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Braithwaite R, Stephens T, Treadwell H, Braithwaite K, Conerly R. Short-term impact of an HIV risk reduction intervention for soon-to-be-released inmates in Georgia. J Health Care Poor Underserved. 2005;16:130–139.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Maruschak LM. HIV in Prisons and Jails, 2002. Bur Justice Stat Bulletin. 2004;NCJ 205333:1–11.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Grinstead O, Zack B, Faigeles B, Grossman N, Blea L. Reducing postrelease HIV risk among male prison inmates: a peer-led intervention. Crim Justice Behav. 1999;26:453–465.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Margolis A, MacGowan R, Grinstead O, Sosman J, Kashif I, Flanigan T. Unprotected sex with multiple partners: implications for HIV prevention among young men with a history of incarceration. Sex Transm Dis. 2006;33:175–180.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Johnson RC, Raphael S. The effects of male incarceration dynamics on Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome infection rates among African American women and men. J Law Econ. 2009;52:251–293.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Blank MB, Eisenberg MM. HIV and mental illness: opportunities for prevention. J Prev Interv Community. 2007;33:1–4.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Carey MP, Carey KB, Maisto SA. Prevalence and correlates of sexual activity and HIV-related risk behavior among psychiatric outpatients. J Consult Clin Psychol. 2001;69:846–850.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Baillargeon JG. Psychiatric disorders, HIV infection and HIV/hepatitis co-infection in the correctional setting. AIDS Care. 2008;20:124–129.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Braithwaite R, Stephens T. Use of protective barriers and unprotected sex among adult male prison inmates prior to incarceration. Int J STD AIDS. 2005;16:224–226.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Karberg JC, James DJ. Substance dependence, abuse, and treatment of jail inmates, 2002. Bur Justice Stat Spec Rep. 2005;NCJ 209588:1–12.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Wohl AR, Johnson DF, Lu S, et al. HIV risk behaviors among African American men in Los Angeles county who self-identify as heterosexual. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2002;31:354–360.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    McCoy CB, Lai S, Metsch LR, Messiah SE, Zhao W. Injection drug use and crack cocaine smoking: independent and dual risk behaviors for HIV infection. Ann Epidemiol. 2004;14:535–542.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Belenko S, Lin J, O’Connor L, Sung H, Lynch K. Sexual and physical victimization as predictors of HIV risk among felony drug offenders. AIDS Behav. 2005;9:311–323.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    MacGowan R, Margolis A, Gaiter J, et al. Predictors of risky sex of young men after release from prison. Int J STD AIDS. 2003;14:519–523.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Hammet TM, Harmon MP, Rhodes W. The burden of infectious disease among inmates of and releasees from US correctional facilities, 1997. Am J Public Health. 2002;92:1789–1794.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Thomas JC, Sampson LA. High rates of incarceration as a social force associated with community rates of sexually transmitted infection. J Infect Dis. 2005;191:S55–S60.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Epperson M, El-Bassel N, Gilbert L, Orellana E, Chang M. Increased HIV risk associated with criminal justice involvement among men on methadone. AIDS Behav. 2008;12:51–57.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Marsch LA. The efficacy of methadone maintenance interventions in reducing illicit opiate use, HIV risk behavior and criminality: a meta-analysis. Addiction. 1998;93:515–532.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Mays D, Gordon A, Kelly M, Forman S. Violent criminal behavior and perspectives on treatment of criminality in opiate treatment. Subst Abus. 2005;26:33–42.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Gilbert L, El-Bassel N, Rajah V, Foleno A, Frye V. Linking drug related activities with experiences of partner violence: a focus group study of women in methadone treatment. Violence Vict. 2001;16:517–536.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    El-Bassel N, Gilbert L, Golder S, et al. Deconstructing the relationship between intimate partner violence and sexual IPV risk among drug-involved men and their female partners. AIDS Behav. 2004;8:429–439.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Derogatis LR, Melisaratos N. The brief symptom inventory: an introductory report. Psychol Med. 1983;13:596–605.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Miller B. Child sexual abuse interview. Buffalo: New York State Research Institute on Alcoholism and Addictions; 1990.Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Bernstein DP, Fink L, Handelsman L, et al. Initial reliability and validity of a new retrospective measure of child abuse and neglect. Am J Psychiatry. 1994;151:1132–1136.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Royston P. Multiple imputation of missing values. Stata J. 2004;4:227–241.Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Rubin DB. Multiple Imputation for Nonresponse in Surveys. New York: Wiley; 1987.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Carlin J, Li N, Greenwood P, Coffey C. Tools for analyzing multiple imputed datasets. Stata J. 2003;3:226–244.Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Dehejia R, Wahba S. Propensity score-matching methods for nonexperimental causal studies. Rev Econ Stat. 2002;84:151–161.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Rubin D, Thomas N. Combining propensity score matching with additional adjustments for prognostic covariates. J Am Stat Assoc. 2000;95:573–585.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Werb D, Kerr T, Small W, Li K, Montaner J, Wood E. HIV risks associated with incarceration among injection drug users: implications for prison-based public health strategies. J Public Health. 2008;30:126–132.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Hammett TM, Roberts C, Kennedy S. Health-related issues in prisoner reentry. Crime Delinq. 2001;47:390–411.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Wheelock D, Uggen C. Race, poverty and punishment: the impact of criminal sanctions on racial, ethnic, and socioeconomic inequality. National Poverty Center, University of Michigan. 2005:15–16.Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Blankenship KM, Smoyer AB, Bray SJ, Mattocks K. Black–White disparities in HIV/AIDS: the role of drug policy and the corrections system. J Health Care Poor Underserved. 2005;16:140–156.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Wolff N, Draine J. Dynamics of social capital of prisoners and community reentry: ties that bind? J Correct Health Care. 2004;10:457.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Latkin CA, Forman V, Knowlton A, Sherman S. Norms, social networks, and HIV-related risk behaviors among urban disadvantaged drug users. Soc Sci Med. 2003;56:465–476.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Rhodes T, Singer M, Bourgois P, Friedman SR, Strathdee SA. The social structural production of HIV risk among injecting drug users. Soc Sci Med. 2005;61:1026–1044.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    El-Bassel N, Gilbert L, Wu E, Chang M. A social network profile and HIV risk among men on methadone: do social networks matter? J Urban Health. 2006;83:602–613.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Latkin CA, Knowlton AR. Micro-social structural approaches to HIV prevention: a social ecological perspective. AIDS Care. 2005;17:102–113.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Arriola KRJ. Debunking the myth of the safe haven: toward a better understanding of intraprison HIV transmission. Criminol Public Policy. 2006;5:137–147.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Krebs CP, Simmons M. Intraprison HIV transmission: an assessment of whether it occurs, how it occurs, and who is at risk. AIDS Educ Prev. 2002;14:53–64.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Krebs CP. Inmate factors associated with HIV transmission in prison. Criminol Public Policy. 2006;5:113–135.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Khan MR, Wohl DA, Weir SS, et al. Incarceration and risky sexual partnerships in a southern US city. J Urban Health. 2008;85:100–113.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Adimora A, Schoenbach V, Martinson F, Donaldson K, Stancil T, Fullilove R. Concurrent partnerships among rural African Americans with recently reported heterosexually transmitted HIV infection. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2003;34:423–429.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Braithwaite RL, Arriola AR. Male prisoners and HIV prevention: a call for action ignored. Am J Public Health. 2003;93:759–763.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Hammett TM, Gaiter JL, Crawford C. Reaching seriously at-risk populations: health interventions in criminal justice settings. Health Educ Behav. 1998;25:99–120.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Inciardi JA, Surratt HL, Martin SS, O’Connell DJ, Salandy AD, Beard RA. Developing a multimedia HIV and hepatitis intervention for drug-involved offenders reentering the community. Prison J. 2007;87:111.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Kalichman SC, Cain D, Weinhardt L, et al. Experimental components analysis of brief theory-based HIV/AIDS risk-reduction counseling for sexually transmitted infection patients. Health Psychol. 2005;24:198–208.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Rutledge SE. Single-session motivational enhancement counseling to support change toward reduction of HIV transmission by HIV positive persons. Arch Sex Behav. 2007;36:313–319.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Baker A, Kochan N, Dixon F, Heather N, Woadk A. Controlled evaluation of a brief intervention of HIV prevention among injecting drug users not in treatment. AIDS Care. 1994;6:559–570.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Golembeski C, Fullilove R. Criminal (in) justice in the city and its associated health consequences. Am J Public Health. 2005;95:1701–1706.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Freudenberg N. Coming home from jail: a review of health and social problems facing US jail populations and of opportunities for reentry interventions. Washington: Urban Institute; 2006.Google Scholar
  55. 55.
    Link B, Phelan J. Social conditions as fundamental causes of disease. J Health Soc Behav. 1995;35:80–94.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Pearlin L, Schieman S, Fazio EM, Meersman SC. Stress, health, and the life course: some conceptual perspectives. J Health Soc Behav. 2005;46:205–219.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Hammett TM, Harmon MP, Rhodes W. The burden of infectious disease among inmates of and releasees from US correctional facilities, 1997. Am J Public Health. 2002;92:1789–1794.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Vlahov D, Putnam S. From corrections to communities as an HIV priority. J Urban Health. 2006;83:339–348.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Freudenberg N. Jails, prisons, and the health of urban populations: a review of the impact of the correctional system on community health. J Urban Health. 2001;78:214–235.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Grinstead OA, Zack B, Faigeles B. Collaborative research to prevent HIV among male prison inmates and their female partners. Health Educ Behav. 1999;26:225.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© The New York Academy of Medicine 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • Matthew W. Epperson
    • 1
    • 2
  • Nabila El-Bassel
    • 2
  • Mingway Chang
    • 2
  • Louisa Gilbert
    • 2
  1. 1.Center for Behavioral Health Services & Criminal Justice ResearchRutgers UniversityNew BrunswickUSA
  2. 2.Social Intervention GroupColumbia University School of Social WorkNew YorkUSA

Personalised recommendations