Journal of Urban Health

, Volume 85, Issue 5, pp 707–716

Residential Transience and Depression: Does the Relationship Exist for Men and Women?

  • Melissa A. Davey-Rothwell
  • Danielle German
  • Carl A. Latkin
Article

Abstract

Residential transience may contribute to adverse mental health. However, to date, this relationship has not been well-investigated among urban, impoverished populations. In a sample of drug users and their social network members (n = 1,024), we assessed the relationship between transience (frequently moving in the past 6 months) and depressive symptoms, measured by the CES-D, among men and women. Even after adjusting for homelessness, high levels of depressive symptoms were 2.29 [95%CI = 1.29–4.07] times more likely among transient men compared to nontransient men and 3.30 [95% CI = 1.10–9.90] times more common among transient women compared to nontransient women. Stable housing and mental health services need to be available, easily accessible, and designed so that they remain amenable to utilization under transient circumstances.

Keywords

Mental health Housing instability Residential mobility Depression 

References

  1. 1.
    Hwang SW, Tolomiczenko G, Kouyoumdjian FG, Garner RE. Interventions to improve the health of the homeless: a systematic review. Am J Prev Med. 2005;29(4):311–319.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Pavao J, Alvarez J, Baumrind N, Induni M, Kimerling R. Intimate partner violence and housing instability. Am J Prev Med. 2007;32(2):143–146.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Rosenthal D, Rotheram-Borus MJ, Batterham P, Mallett S, Rice E, Milburn NG. Housing stability over two years and HIV risk among newly homeless youth. AIDS Behav. 2007;11(6):831–841.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Schanzer B, Dominguez B, Shrout PE, Caton CL. Homelessness, health status, and health care use. Am J Public Health. 2007;97(3):464–469.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Hahn JA, Kushel MB, Bangsberg DR, Riley E, Moss AR. BRIEF REPORT: the aging of the homeless population: fourteen-year trends in San Francisco. J Gen Intern Med. 2006;21(7):775–778.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Thompson VV, Ragland KE, Hall CS, Morgan M, Bangsberg DR. Provider assessment of eligibility for hepatitis C treatment in HIV-infected homeless and marginally housed persons. AIDS. 2005;19(Suppl 3):S208–S214.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Duchon LM, Weitzman BC, Shinn M. The relationship of residential instability to medical care utilization among poor mothers in New York City. Med Care. 1999;37(12):1282–1293.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Henny KD, Kidder DP, Stall R, Wolitski RJ. Physical and sexual abuse among homeless and unstably housed adults living with HIV: prevalence and associated risks. AIDS Behav. 2007;11(6):842–853.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Weir BW, Bard RS, O’Brien K, Casciato CJ, Stark MJ. Uncovering patterns of HIV risk through multiple housing measures. AIDS Behav. 2007;11(Suppl 2):31–44.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    German D, Davey MA, Latkin CA. Residential transience and HIV risk behaviors among injection drug users. AIDS Behav. 2007;11(Suppl 2):21–30.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Dong M, Anda RF, Felitti VJ, et al. Childhood residential mobility and multiple health risks during adolescence and adulthood: the hidden role of adverse childhood experiences. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 2005;159(12):1104–1110.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Gilman SE, Kawachi I, Fitzmaurice GM, Buka L. Socio-economic status, family disruption and residential stability in childhood: relation to onset, recurrence and remission of major depression. Psychol Med. 2003;33(8):1341–1355.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Bolan M. The mobility experience and neighborhood attachment. Demography. 1997;34(2):225–237.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Lix LM, DeVerteuil G, Walker JR, Robinson JR, Hinds AM, Roos LL. Residential mobility of individuals with diagnosed schizophrenia: a comparison of single and multiple movers. Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol. 2007;42(3):221–228.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Stokols D, Shumaker SA. The psychological context of residential mobility and well-being. J Soc Issues. 1982;38(3):147–171.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Lorant V, Deliege D, Eaton W, Robert A, Philippot P, Ansseau M. Socioeconomic inequalities in depression: a meta-analysis. Am J Epidemiol. 2003;157(2):98–112.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Munoz M, Crespo M, Perez-Santos E. Homeless effects on men’s and women’s health. Int J Ment Health. 2005;34(2):47–61.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Magdol L. Is moving gendered? The effects of residential mobility on the psychological well-being of men and women. Sex Roles. 2002;47(11/12):553–560.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Nolen-Hoeksema S, Larson J, Grayson C. Explaining the gender difference in depressive symptoms. J Pers Soc Psychol. 1999;77(5):1061–1072.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Weissman MM, Klerman GL. Sex differences and the epidemiology of depression. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 1977;34(1):98–111.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Bird CE, Rieker PP. Gender matters: an integrated model for understanding men’s and women’s health. Soc Sci Med. 1999;48(6):745–755.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Kendler KS, Thornton LM, Prescott CA. Gender differences in the rates of exposure to stressful life events and sensitivity to their depressogenic effects. Am J Psychiatry. 2001;158(4):587–593.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Nazroo JY, Edwards AC, Brown GW. Gender differences in the onset of depression following a shared life event: a study of couples. Psychol Med. 1997;27(1):9–19.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Radloff LS. The CES-D scale: a self-report depression scale for research in the general population. Appl Psychol Meas. 1977;1(3):385–401.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Boyd JH, Weissman MM, Thompson WD, Myers JK. Screening for depression in a community sample. Understanding the discrepancies between depression symptom and diagnostic sales. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 1982;39:1195–1200.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Kim MT, Han HR, Hill M, Rose L, Roary M. Depression, substance use, adherence behaviors, and blood pressure in urban hypertensive black men. Ann Behav Med. 2003;26(1):24–31.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Zeger SL, Liang KY. Longitudinal data analysis for discrete and continuous outcomes. Biometrics. 1986;42(1):121–130.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Smith CA, Smith CJ, Kearns RA, Abbott MW. Housing stressors, social support and psychological distress. Soc Sci Med. 1993;37(5):603–612.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Wong YL, Piliavin I. Stressors, resources, and distress among homeless persons: a longitudinal analysis. Soc Sci Med. 2001;52(7):1029–1042.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Curry A, Latkin C, Davey-Rothwell M. Pathways to depression: the impact of neighborhood violent crime on inner-city residents in Baltimore, Maryland, USA. Soc Sci Med. 2008;in press.Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Clark WAV, Ledwith V. Mobility, housing stress, and neighborhood contexts: evidence from Los Angeles. Environ Plann A. 2006;38(1077):1093.Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Shumaker SA, Stokols D. Residential mobility as a social issue and research topic. J Soc Issues. 1982;38(3):1–19.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Sluzki CE. Disruption and reconstruction of networks following migration/relocation. Fam Syst Med. 1992;10(4):359–363.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Wenzel SL, Tucker JS, Hambarsoomian K, Elliott MN. Toward a more comprehensive understanding of violence against impoverished women. J Interpers Violence. 2006;21(6):820–839.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Tomas A, Dittmar H. The experience of homeless women: an exploration of housing histories and the meaning of home. Hous Stud. 1995;10(4):493–516.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Martens WH. A review of physical and mental health in homeless persons. Public Health Rev. 2001;29(1):13–33.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© The New York Academy of Medicine 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • Melissa A. Davey-Rothwell
    • 1
  • Danielle German
    • 1
  • Carl A. Latkin
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Health, Behavior and SocietyJohns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public HealthBaltimoreUSA

Personalised recommendations