Vicarious Exposure to Terrorist Attacks and Substance Use: Results from an Urban Household Survey
- First Online:
This study investigated the impact of the 9/11 attacks on substance use in Chicago, Illinois. The study design was a cross-sectional, audio-computer-assisted self-interview survey conducted in 2001 and 2002. Biological samples were also collected for toxicological analyses. Using a multistage area probability design, residents between the ages of 18 and 40 years were randomly selected. Compared to pre-9/11 interviewees, post-9/11 interviewees showed significantly less self-reported marijuana use, marijuana use per test results, and cocaine use per test results. Law enforcement and social–structural explanations for the findings are discussed.
KeywordsSubstance use Disasters Epidemiology Terrorist attacks PTSD
- 19.Levy PS, Lemeshow S. Sampling of Populations: Methods and Applications. New York, New York: Wiley; 1991.Google Scholar
- 21.American Association for Public Opinion Research [AAPOR]. Standard Definitions: Final Dispositions of Case Codes and Outcome Rates Surveys. Ann Arbor, Michigan: American Association for Public Opinion Research; 2000.Google Scholar
- 22.Groves RM, Couper MP. Nonresponse in Household Interview Surveys. New York, New York: Wiley; 1998.Google Scholar
- 24.Cone EJ. New developments in biological measures of drug prevalence. In: Harrison L, Hughes A, eds. The Validity of Self-Reported Drug Use: Improving the Accuracy of Survey Estimates. Rockville, Maryland: NIDA Research Monograph 167, US Department of Health and Human Services; 1997:108–129.Google Scholar
- 25.Jehanli A, Brannan S, Moore L, Spiehler V. Blind trials of an onsite saliva drug test. J Forensic Sci. 2001;46:206–212.Google Scholar
- 29.Office of Applied Studies. Summary of findings from the 2000 National Household Survey on Drug Abuse (DHHS Publication No. SMA 01-3549, NHSDA Series: H-13). Rockville, Maryland: Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration; 2001.Google Scholar
- 31.StataCorp. Stata Statistical Software: Release 9. College Station, Texas: StataCorp LP; 2005.Google Scholar
- 36.US Drug Enforcement Agency. Successes in the Fight Against Drugs. Accessed on September 27, 2007. Available at http://www.usdoj.gov/dea/statistics.html#seizures. 2006.
- 37.Putnam R. Better Together: The Report of the Saguaro Seminar on Civic Engagement in America. 2002. Accessed on October 31, 2006. Available at http://www.bettertogether.org/thereport.html.
- 38.Skocpol T. Will 9/11 and the war on terror revitalize American civic democracy? PSonline. September, 2002; 537–540. Accessed on September 9, 2006. Available at http://www.apsanet.org.
- 40.Curran E. The relationship between social capital and substance use by high school students. J Alcohol Drug Educ. 2007;51(2):59–73.Google Scholar