Journal of Urban Health

, Volume 84, Issue 2, pp 243–254 | Cite as

The Puerto Rico–New York Airbridge for Drug Users: Description and Relationship to HIV Risk Behaviors

  • Sherry Deren
  • Sung-Yeon Kang
  • Hector M. Colón
  • Rafaela R. Robles
Article

Abstract

This study examined mobility on the airbridge between New York (NY) and Puerto Rico (PR) for Puerto Rican drug users and its relationship to HIV risk. Over 1,200 Puerto Rican injection drug users (IDUs) and crack smokers were recruited by outreach workers in NY and PR; interview data included questions on mobility (lifetime residences and recent trips). Two-thirds of the NY sample had lived in PR; one-quarter of the PR sample had lived in NY; the most commonly sited reasons for moving were family-related. Fewer than 10% had visited the other location in the prior 3 years. Variables related to risk were number of moves, recent travel, and having used drugs in PR (all with p < 0.05). Implications included the need to enhance risk reduction efforts for IDUs in PR and address sexual risk among mobile drug users.

Keywords

HIV risk Injection drug users Mobility New York Puerto Rican 

Notes

Acknowledgement

This paper was based on data collected from a project funded by the National Institute on Drug Abuse, Grant No. RO1DA10425.

References

  1. 1.
    Lurie M, Williams B, Zuma K, et al. The impact of migration on HIV-1 transmission in South Africa: a study of migrant and nonmigrant men and their partners. Sex Transm Dis. 2003;30(2):149–156.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Sanchez M, Lemp G, Magis-Rodriguez C, Bravo-Garcia E, Carter S, Ruiz J. The epidemiology of HIV among Mexican migrants and recent immigrants in California and Mexico. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2004;37(Suppl 4):S204–S214.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Deren S, Kang S-Y, Colón HM, et al. Migration and HIV risk behaviors: Puerto Rican drug injectors in New York City and Puerto Rico. Am J Public Health. 2003;93:812–816.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Magis-Rodriguez C, Gayet C, Negroni M, et al. Migration and AIDS in Mexico: an overview based on recent evidence. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2004;37(spp. 4):S215–S226.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Oliver-Velez D, Finlinson HA, Deren S, et al. Mapping the air-bridge locations: the application of ethnographic mapping techniques to a study of HIV risk behavior determinant in East Harlem, New York, and Bayamón, Puerto Rico. Hum Organ. 2002;61(3):262–276.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Maldonado M. HIV/AIDS service needs for migrating populations—Puerto Rico and New York City: public policy implications. In: Menendez B, ed. The HIV/AIDS Epidemic in a Commuting Population: Puerto Ricans in New York City and Puerto Rico, Proceedings from the Conference, November 12–13. Bronx, NY: Lehman College; 1992:17–31.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Colón HM. The travel patterns of Puerto Rican drug injectors: Implications for the transmission and prevention of HIV/AIDS. In: Menendez BS, ed. The HIV/AIDS Epidemic in a Commuting Population: Puerto Ricans in New York City and Puerto Rico, Proceedings from the Conference, November 12–13. Bronx NY: Lehman College; 1992:33–42.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Robles RR, Colón HM, Matos TD, Reyes JC, Marrero CA, Lopez CM. Risk factors and HIV infection among three different cultural groups of injection drug users. In: Brown BS, Beschner GM, eds. Handbook on Risk of AIDS: Injection Drug Users and Sexual Partners. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press; 1993:256–274.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Deren S, Oliver-Velez D, Finlinson A, et al. Integrating qualitative and quantitative methods: comparing HIV-related risk behaviors among Puerto Rican drug users in Puerto Rico and New York. Subst Use Misuse. 2003;38:1–24.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Menendez BS, ed. The HIV/AIDS epidemic in a commuting population: Puerto Ricans in New York City and Puerto Rico, Proceedings from the Conference, November 12–13. Bronx, NY: Lehman College; 1992.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Colón HM, Robles RR, Deren S, et al. Between-city variation in frequency of injection among Puerto Rican injection drug users: East Harlem, New York and Bayamon, Puerto Rico. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2001;27:405–413.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Des Jarlais DC, Perlis T, Arasteh K, et al. HIV incidence among injecting drug users in New York City, 1990 to 2002: use of serologic test algorithm to assess expansion of HIV prevention services. Am J Public Health. 2005;95:1439–1444.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Deren S, Robles R, Andia J, Colón HM, Kang S-Y, Perlis T. Trends in HIV seroprevalence and needle sharing among Puerto Rican drug injectors in Puerto Rico and New York: 1992–1999. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2001;26:164–169.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Finlinson HA, Oliver-Vélez D, Colón HM, et al. Syringe acquisition and use of syringe exchange programs by Puerto Rican drug injectors in New York and Puerto Rico: comparisons based on quantitative and qualitative methods. AIDS Behav. 2000;4:341–351.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Oliver-Velez D, Deren S, Finlinson A, et al. Sexual risk behaviors of Puerto Rican drug users in East Harlem, New York and Bayamón, Puerto Rico. Cult Health Sex. 2003;5:19–35.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Robles RR, Matos TD, Colón HM, et al. Determinants of health care use among Puerto Rican drug users in Puerto Rico and New York City. Clin Infect Dis. 2003;37:S392–S403.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Deren S, Shedlin M, Decena CU, Mino M. Research challenges to the study of HIV/AIDS among migrant and immigrant Hispanic populations in the United States. J Urban Health. 2005;82:iii13–iii25.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Hagan H, Thiede H, Des Jarlais DC. Hepatitis C virus infection among injection drug users: survival analysis of time to seroconversion. Epidemiology. 2004;15:543–549.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Mino M, Deren S. Disparities in HIV prevention services, infection rates and mortality: a comparison of drug users in Puerto Rico and New York. [report] 2004. National Development and Research Institutes, Center for Drug Use and HIV Research, New York, NY. Available at: http://cduhr.ndri.org/docs/reports/ARIBBA_NY_PR_%20Disparities.pdf. Accessed September 10, 2006.

Copyright information

© The New York Academy of Medicine 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  • Sherry Deren
    • 1
  • Sung-Yeon Kang
  • Hector M. Colón
  • Rafaela R. Robles
  1. 1.Center for Drug Use and HIV ResearchNational Development & Research Institutes, Inc.New YorkUSA

Personalised recommendations