Advertisement

Journal of Urban Health

, Volume 83, Issue 3, pp 372–381 | Cite as

Community Reentry: Perceptions of People with Substance Use Problems Returning Home from New York City Jails

  • Juliana van Olphen
  • Nicholas Freudenberg
  • Princess Fortin
  • Sandro Galea
Article

Abstract

Each year about 100,000 people return to New York City communities from municipal jails. Although about four-fifths report drug or alcohol problems, few have received any formal drug treatment while in jail. Researchers and practitioners have identified a number of policies related to corrections, income, housing, and drug treatment that may be harmful to the successful reintegration of people leaving jail. In order to explore the challenges to successful community reentry, six focus groups and one in-depth interview were conducted with 37 men and women who had been released from jail or prison in the last 12 months. Participants were asked to describe their experiences prior to and immediately following release from jail. Findings suggest that many people leaving jail are not prepared for release and, upon release, face a myriad of obstacles to becoming healthy, productive members of their communities. We discuss the implications of these findings for programs and policies that promote community reintegration of individuals returning from correctional facilities.

Keywords

Community reintegration or reentry Discharge planning Drug treatment Jail Substance abuse 

Notes

Acknowledgement

The work described here would not have been possible without the active participation of the Center for Urban Epidemiological Studies Community Action Board, Policy Work Group.

References

  1. 1.
    Macdonald G, Leary MR. Why does social exclusion hurt? The relationship between social and physical pain. Psychol Bull. 2005;131(2):202–223.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Evans J, Repper J. Employment, social inclusion and mental health. J Psychiatry Mental Health Nurs. 2000;7(1):15–24.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Harrison PM, Karberg JC. Prison and Jail Inmates at Midyear: 2003 Bulletin. Washington, District of Columbia: U.S. Dept of Justice, Office of Justice Programs, Bureau of Justice Statistics; 2004.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Bloomberg M. Mayor's Management Report, Fiscal Year 2003. New York, NY: City of New York; 2003.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    New York City Department of Corrections. Annual Report, 2002. New York, NY: City of New York; 2002.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Freudenberg N, Daniels J, Crum M, Perkins T, Richie B. Coming home from jail: the social and health consequences of community reentry for women, male adolescents, and their families and communities. Am J Public Health. 2005;95(10):1725–1736.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Nelson M, Deess P, Allen C. The First Month Out: Post Incarceration Experiences in New York City. New York: Vera Institute of Justice; 1999.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Hammett TM, Harmon MP, Rhodes W. The burden of infectious disease among inmates and releasees from U.S. correctional facilities, 1997. Am J Public Health. 2002;92:1789–1794.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Freudenberg N. Jails, prisons and the health of urban populations: a review of the impact of the correctional system on community health. J Urban Health. 2001;78:214–235.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Travis J. But They All Come Back: Rethinking Prisoner Reentry. Washington, District of Columbia: U.S. Dept. of Justice, National Institute of Justice; 2000.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Travis J, Solomon AL, Waul M. From Prison to home: The Dimensions and Consequences of Prisoner Reentry. Washington, District of Columbia: Urban Institute Research Paper; 2001.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Strauss A, Corbin J. Basics of Qualitative Research. Newbury Park: Sage Publications Inc.; 1996.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Kreuger RA. Analyzing and Reporting Focus Group Results: Focus group kit 6. Thousand Oaks: Sage Publications, Inc.; 1998.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Arrestee Drug Abuse Monitoring Program (ADAM). Annual Report on Drug Use among Adult and Juvenile Arrestees. 1999. (NCJ 181326). Washington, District of Columbia: National Institute of Justice; 2000.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    City of New York, Office of the Mayor. Mayor's management report. Preliminary fiscal year 2000. (Agency Narratives, Volume 1). New York: Author; 2002.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    City of New York, Independent Budget Office. Memo on costs of incarceration in New York City. Prepared for Hunter College Center on AIDS, Drugs, and Community Health; 2002.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Moffitt R. From Welfare to Work: What the Evidence Shows. Washington, District of Columbia: The Brookings Institution; 2002. Policy Brief 13. Available at: http://www.brook.edu/dybdocroot/wrb/publications/pb/pb13.pdf. Accessed February 15, 2003.
  18. 18.
    U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development. Screening and eviction for drug abuse and other criminal activity. 66 Federal Register (May 24, 2001), Final Rule 24 CFR 5 et al.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Nelson M, Trone J. Why Planning for Release Matters. Issues in Brief, p. 1–8. New York: Vera Institute of Justice; 2000.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Conklin TJ, Lincoln T, Flanagan TP. A public health model to connect correctional health care with communities. Am J Public Health. 1998;88:1249–1251.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Hammett TM, Roberts C, Kennedy S. Health-related issues in prisoner reentry. Crime Delinquency. 2001;47:390–409.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Richie BE, Freudenberg N, Page J. Reintegrating women leaving jail into urban communities: a description of a model program. J Urban Health. 2001;78:290–303.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Von Zielbauer P. City Creates Post-jail Plan for Inmates. New York Times. September 20, 2003:B1.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Von Zielbauer P. Rikers Houses Low-level Inmates at High Expense. New York Times. January 16, 2004:B1.Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    New York City Council. Local Law to amend the administrative code of the city of New York, in relation to discharge planning services. Accessed May 27, 2005 at http://webdocs.nyccouncil.info/textfiles/Int%200310-2004.htm?CFID=585186&CFTOKEN=60621226.

Copyright information

© The New York Academy of Medicine 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  • Juliana van Olphen
    • 1
  • Nicholas Freudenberg
  • Princess Fortin
  • Sandro Galea
  1. 1.Department of Health EducationSan Francisco State UniversitySan FranciscoUSA

Personalised recommendations