Journal of Urban Health

, Volume 83, Issue 3, pp 355–361 | Cite as

A Century of Census Tracts: Health & the Body Politic (1906–2006)

  • Nancy KriegerEmail author


In 2006, the U.S. celebrates the 100th birthday of the census tract. These geographic units, born out of concerns for urban well-being, were first proposed in 1906 to provide a “convenient and scientific city map system” for the City of New York. They were employed for the first time in the U.S. census in 1910 in eight cities, via a joint effort involving the U.S. Census Bureau and state and local health departments. Initially termed “sanitary areas” because of their relevance to planning for public health and health services, census tracts are now widely used by all sectors of government and by myriad disciplines in the health, social, and geographic sciences for research as well as policy development, implementation, and evaluation. In this article, I describe the census tract's underappreciated origins, give examples of its current use in analyzing and addressing social disparities in health and health care, and discuss its continued significance and implications for population health and the public data required for informed democratic governance.


Census tract Geocoding Geography GIS Health disparities Policy Public health surveillance Socioeconomic Urban health 



Thanks to Pamela D. Waterman for generating the Year 2000 New York City census tract map. Preparation of this manuscript was not supported by any grant.


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Copyright information

© The New York Academy of Medicine 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Society, Human Development and HealthHarvard School of Public HealthBostonUSA

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