A high-fidelity 3D S-FEM stress analysis of a highly heterogeneous swine skull

  • S. H. Huo
  • C. JiangEmail author
  • X. Cui
  • G. R. Liu
Original Article


Fracture healing and growth of the bones are highly related to the stress level. Numerical analysis of stresses is the most effective means to determine the stress level, but it usually requires sufficient resolution to ensure an accurate description of geometry features of bones. In this paper, high-fidelity smoothed finite element method (S-FEM) skull models are created using computed tomography (CT) and micro-computed tomography (μCT) images of a juvenile pig skull. The material properties of the heterogeneous bone are modeled by a varying distribution of Young’s modulus mapped to each element and smoothing domain to accurately capture the high heterogeneity. Different types of S-FEM models, including node-based, edge-based, and face-based, are developed for this high-fidelity modeling work. It is found that S-FEM has higher accuracy, in terms of displacements, stresses, and strain energy, compared to the traditional finite element method (FEM).

Graphical abstract


Finite element method Smoothed finite element method Swine skull Stress analysis μCT scans Biomechanics 


Funding information

This work is supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 11832011) and Science Foundation of Hunan Province (Grant No. 2019jj50790).


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Copyright information

© International Federation for Medical and Biological Engineering 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.State Key Laboratory of Reliability and Intelligence of Electrical EquipmentHebei University of TechnologyTianjinChina
  2. 2.Key Laboratory of Traffic Safety on Track of Ministry of Education, School of Traffic & Transportation EngineeringCentral South UniversityChangshaChina
  3. 3.School of Mechanical EngineeringHebei University of TechnologyTianjinChina
  4. 4.Department of Aerospace Engineering and Engineering MechanicsUniversity of CincinnatiCincinnatiUSA

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