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Medical & Biological Engineering & Computing

, Volume 55, Issue 8, pp 1163–1175 | Cite as

Cerebrovascular pattern improved by ozone autohemotherapy: an entropy-based study on multiple sclerosis patients

  • Filippo MolinariEmail author
  • Daniele Rimini
  • William Liboni
  • U. Rajendra Acharya
  • Marianno Franzini
  • Sergio Pandolfi
  • Giovanni Ricevuti
  • Francesco Vaiano
  • Luigi Valdenassi
  • Vincenzo Simonetti
Original Article

Abstract

Ozone major autohemotherapy is effective in reducing the symptoms of multiple sclerosis (MS) patients, but its effects on brain are still not clear. In this work, we have monitored the changes in the cerebrovascular pattern of MS patients and normal subjects during major ozone autohemotherapy by using near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) as functional and vascular technique. NIRS signals are analyzed using a combination of time, time–frequency analysis and nonlinear analysis of intrinsic mode function signals obtained from empirical mode decomposition technique. Our results show that there is an improvement in the cerebrovascular pattern of all subjects indicated by increasing the entropy of the NIRS signals. Hence, we can conclude that the ozone therapy increases the brain metabolism and helps to recover from the lower activity levels which is predominant in MS patients.

Keywords

Ozone autohemotherapy Near-infrared spectroscopy MANOVA Multiple sclerosis Time–frequency Entropy Empirical mode decomposition Cerebrovascular pattern 

Notes

Acknowledgments

Part of the study was founded by the Scientific Society of Oxygen Ozone Therapy (SIOOT).

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Copyright information

© International Federation for Medical and Biological Engineering 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Filippo Molinari
    • 1
    Email author
  • Daniele Rimini
    • 1
  • William Liboni
    • 2
  • U. Rajendra Acharya
    • 3
    • 4
  • Marianno Franzini
    • 5
  • Sergio Pandolfi
    • 5
  • Giovanni Ricevuti
    • 6
    • 7
  • Francesco Vaiano
    • 5
  • Luigi Valdenassi
    • 8
  • Vincenzo Simonetti
    • 9
  1. 1.Biolab, Department of Electronics and TelecommunicationsPolitecnico di TorinoTurinItaly
  2. 2.“Un Passo Insieme” ONLUS Foundation, ValdellatorreTurinItaly
  3. 3.Department of Electronics and Computer EngineeringNgee Ann PolytechnicClementiSingapore
  4. 4.Department of Biomedical EngineeringSIM UniversityClementiSingapore
  5. 5.Scientific Society of Oxygen Ozone Therapy (SIOOT)GorleItaly
  6. 6.Geriatric and Emergency Medicine, Postgraduate School in Emergency MedicineUniversity of PaviaPaviaItaly
  7. 7.Geriatric DivisionASP – IDR S. MargheritaPaviaItaly
  8. 8.Department of Internal Medicine and Medical TherapyUniversity of PaviaPaviaItaly
  9. 9.“Kaos” ONLUS FoundationTurinItaly

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