Medical & Biological Engineering & Computing

, Volume 53, Issue 3, pp 253–261 | Cite as

A grip force model for the da Vinci end-effector to predict a compensation force

  • Chiwon Lee
  • Yong Hyun Park
  • Chiyul Yoon
  • Seungwoo Noh
  • Choonghee Lee
  • Youdan Kim
  • Hee Chan Kim
  • Hyeon Hoe Kim
  • Sungwan Kim
Original Article


A torque transfer system (TTS) that measures grip forces is developed to resolve a potential drawback of the current da Vinci robot system whose grip forces vary according to the different postures of its EndoWrist. A preliminary model of EndoWrist Inner Mechanism Model (EIMM) is also developed and validated with real grip force measurements. EndoWrist’s grip forces, posture angles, and transferred torque are measured by using TTS. The mean measured grip forces of three different EndoWrist for 27 different postures were very diverse. The EndoWrist exerted different grip forces, with a minimum of 1.84-times more and a maximum of 3.37-times more in specific posture even if the surgeon exerted the same amount of force. Using the posture angles as input and the grip forces as output, the EIMM is constructed. Then, expected grip force values obtained from EIMM are compared with actual measurements of da Vinci EndoWrist to validate the proposed model. From these results, surgeons will be beneficial with the understandings of actual grip force being applied to tissue and mechanical properties of robotic system. The EIMM could provide a baseline in designing a force-feedback system for surgical robot. These are significantly important to prevent serious injury by maintaining a proper force to tissue.


Surgical instruments Laparoscopy da Vinci end-effector Grip force modeling Compensation force 



Torque transfer system


EndoWrist Inner Mechanism Model


National instruments


Prograsp forceps


PK dissecting forceps


Large needle driver


Standard deviation


Coupled terms


High-order term


Mean grip force


Standard error of measurement



This work was partially supported by the Seoul National University Foundation Research Expense (Grant Number: 800-20100525) and a National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) Grant funded by the Korean Government (Grant Number: 2012-0001638).


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Copyright information

© International Federation for Medical and Biological Engineering 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Chiwon Lee
    • 1
  • Yong Hyun Park
    • 2
  • Chiyul Yoon
    • 1
  • Seungwoo Noh
    • 1
  • Choonghee Lee
    • 1
  • Youdan Kim
    • 3
  • Hee Chan Kim
    • 4
  • Hyeon Hoe Kim
    • 2
  • Sungwan Kim
    • 4
  1. 1.The Interdisciplinary Program for Bioengineering, Graduate SchoolSeoul National UniversitySeoulKorea
  2. 2.Department of UrologySeoul National University HospitalSeoulKorea
  3. 3.Department of Mechanical and Aerospace EngineeringSeoul National University College of EngineeringSeoulKorea
  4. 4.Department of Biomedical Engineering, Institute of Medical and Biological EngineeringSeoul National UniversitySeoulKorea

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