Medical & Biological Engineering & Computing

, Volume 52, Issue 3, pp 271–282 | Cite as

Intra-protocol repeatability and inter-protocol agreement for the analysis of scapulo-humeral coordination

  • I. Parel
  • A. G. Cutti
  • A. Kraszewski
  • G. Verni
  • H. Hillstrom
  • A. Kontaxis
Special Issue - Original Article

Abstract

Multi-center clinical trials incorporating shoulder kinematics are currently uncommon. The absence of repeatability and limits of agreement (LoA) studies between different centers employing different motion analysis protocols has led to a lack dataset compatibility. Therefore, the aim of this work was to determine the repeatability and LoA between two shoulder kinematic protocols. The first one uses a scapula tracker (ST), the International Society of Biomechanics anatomical frames and an optoelectronic measurement system, and the second uses a spine tracker, the INAIL Shoulder and Elbow Outpatient protocol (ISEO) and an inertial and magnetic measurement system. First within-protocol repeatability for each approach was assessed on a group of 23 healthy subjects and compared with the literature. Then, the between-protocol agreement was evaluated. The within-protocol repeatability was similar for the ST (\(\overline{\text{RMSE}}\) = 2.35°, \(\sigma_{\text{RMSE}}\) = 0.97°, SEM = 2.5°) and ISEO (\(\overline{\text{RMSE}}\) = 2.24°, \(\sigma_{\text{RMSE}}\) = 0.97°, SEM = 2.3°) protocols and comparable with data from published literature. The between-protocol agreement analysis showed comparable scapula medio-lateral rotation measurements for up to 120° of flexion-extension and up to 100° of scapula plane ab-adduction. Scapula protraction–retraction measurements were in agreement for a smaller range of humeral elevation. The results of this study suggest comparable repeatability for the ST and ISEO protocols and between-protocol agreement for two scapula rotations. Different thresholds for repeatability and LoA may be adapted to suit different clinical hypotheses.

Keywords

Shoulder Biomechanics Repeatability Agreement Motion analysis protocol 

Abbreviations

General terms

IMMS

Inertial and magnetic measurement system

ISEO

Spine tracker

ST

Scapula tracker

Rotations

AB-AD

Ab-adduction of the humerus in the scapular plane

FL-EX

Flexion–extension of the humerus in the sagittal plane

ME-LA

Medio-lateral rotation of the scapula

P-A

Posterior–anterior tilt of the scapula

PR-RE

Pro-retraction of the scapula

h

Humeral elevation angle

Statistic parameters

Between

Between protocols, i.e., between ST and ISEO

Within

Within each protocol, i.e., within ST or within ISEO

CR

Coefficient of repeatability

LoA

Limits of agreement

RMSE

Root mean square error

\(\overline{\text{RMSE}}\)

Mean RMSE

σRMSE

Standard deviation of RMSE

SEM

Standard error of measurement

SD

Standard deviation

Supplementary material

11517_2013_1121_MOESM1_ESM.doc (93 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (DOC 93 kb)

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Copyright information

© International Federation for Medical and Biological Engineering 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • I. Parel
    • 1
    • 2
  • A. G. Cutti
    • 1
    • 4
  • A. Kraszewski
    • 3
  • G. Verni
    • 1
  • H. Hillstrom
    • 3
  • A. Kontaxis
    • 3
  1. 1.I.N.A.I.L. Centro ProtesiVigorso di BudrioItaly
  2. 2.DIAUniversity of TriesteTriesteItaly
  3. 3.The Hospital for Special SurgeryNew YorkUSA
  4. 4.Motion Analysis LaboratoryC/O Centro Protesi INAILVigorso di BudrioItaly

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