Computational fluid dynamics of blood flow in coil-embolized aneurysms: effect of packing density on flow stagnation in an idealized geometry
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Coil embolization is performed to induce flow stagnation in cerebral aneurysms and enhance blood clot formation, thus preventing rupture and further growth. We investigated hemodynamics in differently positioned aneurysms coiled at various packing densities to determine the effective packing density in terms of flow stagnation. As a first step, hemodynamic simulations were conducted for idealized geometries of both terminal- and sidewall-type aneurysms. Porous media modeling was employed to describe blood flow in coil-embolized aneurysms. The stagnant volume ratio (SVR) was analyzed to quantify the efficacy of coil embolization. Regardless of aneurysm type and angle, SVR increased with increasing packing density, but the increase in SVR varied depending on type. For sidewall-type aneurysms, the packing density required to achieve 60 % SVR was 20 %, roughly independent of aneurysm angle; flow stagnation was achieved at low packing density. In contrast, in terminal-type aneurysms, the packing density required to achieve 60 % SVR was highly dependent on aneurysm angle, accomplishing a 20 % packing density only for lower angles. Indications are that a relatively high packing density would be required, particularly when these aneurysms are angled against the parent artery. The packing density required for flow stagnation varies depending on aneurysm type and relative position.
KeywordsCerebral aneurysm Computational fluid dynamics Coil embolization Porous media
This study was supported by Grants-in-Aid for Scientific Research (B) 22300155, Scientific Research (B) 21300163 and Challenging Exploratory Research 23650261 from the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science, and Technology (MEXT). We wish to acknowledge Dr. Satoshi Ii for discussions on the analysis of flow.
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