A comprehensive survey of wearable and wireless ECG monitoring systems for older adults

  • Mirza Mansoor BaigEmail author
  • Hamid Gholamhosseini
  • Martin J. Connolly
Review Article


Wearable health monitoring is an emerging technology for continuous monitoring of vital signs including the electrocardiogram (ECG). This signal is widely adopted to diagnose and assess major health risks and chronic cardiac diseases. This paper focuses on reviewing wearable ECG monitoring systems in the form of wireless, mobile and remote technologies related to older adults. Furthermore, the efficiency, user acceptability, strategies and recommendations on improving current ECG monitoring systems with an overview of the design and modelling are presented. In this paper, over 120 ECG monitoring systems were reviewed and classified into smart wearable, wireless, mobile ECG monitoring systems with related signal processing algorithms. The results of the review suggest that most research in wearable ECG monitoring systems focus on the older adults and this technology has been adopted in aged care facilitates. Moreover, it is shown that how mobile telemedicine systems have evolved and how advances in wearable wireless textile-based systems could ensure better quality of healthcare delivery. The main drawbacks of deployed ECG monitoring systems including imposed limitations on patients, short battery life, lack of user acceptability and medical professional’s feedback, and lack of security and privacy of essential data have been also discussed.


Wearable monitoring systems Wireless ECG monitoring systems ECG tele-health care Mobile monitoring systems Expert ECG systems 


Conflict of interest

The authors declare no conflict of interest.


  1. 1.
    Addison PS (2005) Wavelet transforms and the ECG: a review. Physiol Meas 26(5):R155PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Afonso VX, Tompkins WJ, Nguyen TQ, Michler K, Shen L (1996) Comparing stress ECG enhancement algorithms. IEEE Eng Med Biol Mag 15(3):37–44CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Al Ameen M, Liu J, Kwak K (2012) Security and privacy issues in wireless sensor networks for healthcare applications. J Med Syst 36(1):93–101. doi: 10.1007/s10916-010-9449-4 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Alemdar H, Ersoy C (2010) Wireless sensor networks for healthcare: a survey. Comput Netw 54(15):2688–2710CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Atoui H, Fayn J, Rubel P (2010) A novel neural-network model for deriving standard 12-Lead ECGs from serial three-lead ECGs: application to self-care. IEEE Trans Inf Technol Biomed 14(3):883–890PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Australian Bureau of Statistics (2010) Population by age and sex, regions of Australia.
  7. 7.
    Bansal D, Khan M, Salhan AK (2009) A computer based wireless system for online acquisition, monitoring and digital processing of ECG waveforms. Comput Biol Med 39(4):361–367PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Barnwell J, Klein J, Stallings C, Sturm A, Gillespie M, Fine J, Hyslop W (2012) Image-guided optimization of the ECG trace in cardiac MRI. Int J Cardiovasc Imaging (formerly Cardiac Imaging) 28(3):587–593. doi: 10.1007/s10554-011-9865-7 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Bayilmis C, Younis M (2012) Energy-aware gateway selection for increasing the lifetime of wireless body area sensor networks. J Med Syst 36(3):1593–1601. doi: 10.1007/s10916-010-9620-y PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Bergmann J, McGregor A (2011) Body-worn sensor design: what do patients and clinicians want? Ann Biomed Eng 39(9):2299–2312. doi: 10.1007/s10439-011-0339-9 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Bianchi AM, Mendez MO, Cerutti S (2010) Processing of signals recorded through smart devices: sleep-quality assessment. IEEE Trans Inf Technol Biomed 14(3):741–747PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Blanco-Velasco M, Cruz-Roldán F, Moreno-Martínez E, Godino-Llorente J-I, Barner KE (2008) Embedded filter bank-based algorithm for ECG compression. Signal Process 88(6):1402–1412CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Bodin O, Loginov D, Mitrokhina N (2008) Improvement of ECG analysis for monitoring of cardiac electrical activity. Biomed Eng 42(3):128–131. doi: 10.1007/s10527-008-9030-3 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Bsoul M, Minn H, Tamil L (2011) Apnea MedAssist: real-time sleep apnea monitor using single-lead ECG. IEEE Trans Inf Technol Biomed 15(3):416–427PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Buttussi F, Chittaro L (2008) MOPET: a context-aware and user-adaptive wearable system for fitness training. Artif Intell Med 42(2):153–163PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Chan M, Estève D, Escriba C, Campo E (2008) A review of smart homes—present state and future challenges. Comput Methods Programs Biomed 91(1):55–81PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Chan V, Ray P, Parameswaran N (2008) Mobile e-health monitoring: an agent-based approach. IET Commun 2(2):223–230CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Chang H-T, Chung C-G, Chen M-W (2011) An e-caring chair for physiological signal measurement and recording. Med Eng Phys 35(2):277–282Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Chatterjee HK, Gupta R, Mitra M (2011) A statistical approach for determination of time plane features from digitized ECG. Comput Biol Med 41(5):278–284PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Chen B, Pompili D (2011) Transmission of patient vital signs using wireless body area networks. Mobile Netw Appl 16(6):663–682. doi: 10.1007/s11036-010-0253-7 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Chen J, Wang F, Zhang Y, Shi X (2008) ECG compression using uniform scalar dead-zone quantization and conditional entropy coding. Med Eng Phys 30(4):523–530PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Chin-Teng L, Kuan-Cheng C, Chun-Ling L, Chia-Cheng C, Shao-Wei L, Shih-Sheng C, Bor-Shyh L, Hsin-Yueh L, Ray-Jade C, Yuan-Teh L, Li-Wei K (2010) An intelligent telecardiology system using a wearable and wireless ECG to detect atrial fibrillation. IEEE Trans Inf Technol Biomed 14(3):726–733CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Chung-Chih L, Ping-Yeh L, Po-Kuan L, Guan-Yu H, Wei-Lun L, Ren-Guey L (2008) A healthcare integration system for disease assessment and safety monitoring of dementia patients. IEEE Trans Inf Technol Biomed 12(5):579–586CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Coyle S, King-Tong L, Moyna N, O’Gorman D, Diamond D, Di Francesco F, Costanzo D, Salvo P, Trivella MG, De Rossi DE, Taccini N, Paradiso R, Porchet JA, Ridolfi A, Luprano J, Chuzel C, Lanier T, Revol-Cavalier F, Schoumacker S, Mourier V, Chartier I, Convert R, De-Moncuit H, Bini C (2010) BIOTEX-biosensing textiles for personalised healthcare management. IEEE Trans Inf Technol Biomed 14(2):364–370PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Davenport C, Cheng EYL, Kwok YTT, Lai AHO, Wakabayashi T, Hyde C, Connock M (2006) Assessing the diagnostic test accuracy of natriuretic peptides and ECG in the diagnosis of left ventricular systolic dysfunction: a systematic review and meta-analysis. British J Gen Practice 56(522):48Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    De Capua C, Meduri A, Morello R (2010) A smart ECG measurement system based on web-service-oriented architecture for telemedicine applications. IEEE Trans Instrum Meas 59(10):2530–2538CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Di Marco L, Chiari L (2011) A wavelet-based ECG delineation algorithm for 32-bit integer online processing. BioMed Engi Online 10(1):1–19. doi: 10.1186/1475-925x-10-23 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Di Rienzo M, Meriggi P, Rizzo F, Castiglioni P, Lombardi C, Ferratini M, Parati G (2010) Textile technology for the vital signs monitoring in telemedicine and extreme environments. IEEE Trans Inf Technol Biomed 14(3):711–717PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Dilmaghani RS, Bobarshad H, Ghavami M, Choobkar S, Wolfe C (2011) Wireless sensor networks for monitoring physiological signals of multiple patients. IEEE Trans Biomed Circuits Syst 5(4):347–356CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Dong-Her S, Hsiu-Sen C, Binshan L, Shih-Bin L (2010) An embedded mobile ECG reasoning system for elderly patients. IEEE Trans Inf Technol Biomed 14(3):854–865CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Faust O, Shetty R, Sree S, Acharya S, Acharya UR, Ng E, Poo C, Suri J (2011) Towards the systematic development of medical networking technology. J Med Syst 35(6):1431–1445. doi: 10.1007/s10916-009-9420-4 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Fraile JA, Bajo J, Corchado JM, Abraham A (2010) Applying wearable solutions in dependent environments. IEEE Trans Inf Technol Biomed 14(6):1459–1467PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Gacek A (2011) Preprocessing and analysis of ECG signals—a self-organizing maps approach. Expert Syst Appl 38(7):9008–9013CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Hairong Y, Hongwei H, Youzhi X, Gidlund M (2010) Wireless sensor network based E-health system—implementation and experimental results. IEEE Trans Consum Electron 56(4):2288–2295CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Heilman K, Handelman M, Lewis G, Porges S (2008) Accuracy of the StressEraser in the detection of cardiac rhythms. Appl Psychophysiol Biofeedback 33(2):83–89. doi: 10.1007/s10484-008-9054-1 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Helen Bray (2008) National Population Projections. Office for National Statistics, Series pp 2, No. 26, Palgrave Macmillan, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Keong HC, Yuce MR (2008) Low data rate ultra wideband ECG monitoring system. In: Dumont G, Galiana H (eds) 30th Annual international conference of the IEEE engineering in medicine and biology society, Vancouver, BC, 20–25 Aug 2008. IEEE, USA, pp 3413–3416Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Ho C, Weihua Z (2010) Bluetooth-enabled in-home patient monitoring system: early detection of Alzheimer’s disease. IEEE Wirel Commun 17(1):74–79CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Honggang W, Dongming P, Wei W, Sharif H, Hsiao-hwa C, Khoynezhad A (2010) Resource-aware secure ECG healthcare monitoring through body sensor networks. IEEE Wireless Commun 17(1):12–19CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Hsieh J-C, Lo H-C (2010) The clinical application of a PACS-dependent 12-lead ECG and image information system in E-medicine and telemedicine. J Digit Imaging 23(4):501–513. doi: 10.1007/s10278-009-9231-7 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Hyejung K, Yazicioglu RF, Merken P, Van Hoof C, Hoi-Jun Y (2010) ECG signal compression and classification algorithm with quad level vector for ECG Holter system. IEEE Trans Inf Technol Biomed 14(1):93–100CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Jourand P, De Clercq H, Corthout R, Puers R (2009) Textile integrated breathing and ECG monitoring system. Procedia Chem 1(1):722–725CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Jourand P, De Clercq H, Puers R (2010) Robust monitoring of vital signs integrated in textile. Sens Actuators A 161(1–2):288–296Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    Jovanov E, Milenkovic A (2011) Body area networks for ubiquitous healthcare applications: opportunities and challenges. J Med Syst 35(5):1245–1254. doi: 10.1007/s10916-011-9661-x PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Kaufmann T, Sütterlin S, Schulz S, Vögele C (2011) ARTiiFACT: a tool for heart rate artifact processing and heart rate variability analysis. Behav Res Methods 43(4):1161–1170. doi: 10.3758/s13428-011-0107-7 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Kim M, Cho Y, Seo S-T, Son C-S, Kim Y-N (2011) A new method of ECG feature detection based on combined wavelet transform for u-health service. Biomed Eng Lett 1(2):108–115. doi: 10.1007/s13534-011-0016-9 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Kinsella K, Phillips DR (2005) Global aging: the challenge of success. Population Bulletin 60(1):1–42Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    Kleinmuntz B (1984) Diagnostic problem solving by computer: a historical review and the current state of the science. Comput Biol Med 14(3):255–270PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Kundu M, Nasipuri M, Kumar Basu D (2000) Knowledge-based ECG interpretation: a critical review. Pattern Recogn 33(3):351–373CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Kyungtae K, Kyung-Joon P, Jae-Jin S, Chang-Hwan Y, Lui S (2011) A medical-grade wireless architecture for remote electrocardiography. IEEE Trans Inf Technol Biomed 15(2):260–267CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Latré B, Braem B, Moerman I, Blondia C, Demeester P (2011) A survey on wireless body area networks. Wireless Netw 17(1):1–18. doi: 10.1007/s11276-010-0252-4 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Lee Y-D, Chung W-Y (2009) Wireless sensor network based wearable smart shirt for ubiquitous health and activity monitoring. Sensors Actuators B Chemical 140(2):390–395CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Lee HJ, Lee SH, Ha K-S, Jang HC, Chung W-Y, Kim JY, Chang Y-S, Yoo DH (2009) Ubiquitous healthcare service using Zigbee and mobile phone for elderly patients. Int J Med Inform 78(3):193–198PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Lien CTC, Gillespie ND, Struthers AD, McMurdo MET (2002) Heart failure in frail elderly patients: diagnostic difficulties, co-morbidities, polypharmacy and treatment dilemmas. Eur J Heart Fail 4(1):91–98PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Lin C-F (2010) Mobile telemedicine: a survey study. J Med Syst 36(2):511–520. doi: 10.1007/s10916-010-9496-x PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Liu L, Liu J (2011) Biomedical sensor technologies on the platform of mobile phones. Frontiers Mech Eng 6(2):160–175. doi: 10.1007/s11465-011-0216-0 Google Scholar
  57. 57.
    Long Y, Joonsung B, Seulki L, Taehwan R, Kiseok S, Hoi-Jun Y (2011) A 3.9 mW 25-electrode reconfigured sensor for wearable cardiac monitoring system. IEEE J Solid State Circuits 46(1):353–364CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    López G, Custodio V, Moreno JI (2010) LOBIN: E-textile and wireless-sensor-network-based platform for healthcare monitoring in future hospital environments. IEEE Trans Inf Technol Biomed 14(6):1446–1458PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Mak JNF, Hu Y, Luk KDK (2010) An automated ECG-artifact removal method for trunk muscle surface EMG recordings. Med Eng Phys 32(8):840–848PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Mamaghanian H, Khaled N, Atienza D, Vandergheynst P (2011) Compressed sensing for real-time energy-efficient ECG compression on wireless body sensor nodes. IEEE Trans Biomed Eng 58(9):2456–2466PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    McFee R, Baule GM (1972) Research in electrocardiography and magnetocardiography. In: Rowe JE (ed) Proceedings of the IEEE, USA, 1972, vol 3. The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Inc., pp 290–321Google Scholar
  62. 62.
    Merritt CR, Nagle HT, Grant E (2009) Fabric-based active electrode design and fabrication for health monitoring clothing. IEEE Trans Inf Technol Biomed 13(2):274–280PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Merzougui R, Feham M, Sedjelmaci H (2011) Design and implementation of an algorithm for cardiac pathologies detection on mobile phone. Int J Wireless Inf Netw 18(1):11–23. doi: 10.1007/s10776-011-0129-1 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Boulos MN, Wheeler S, Tavares C, Jones R (2011) How smartphones are changing the face of mobile and participatory healthcare: an overview, with example from eCAALYX. BioMed Eng Online 10(1):1–14. doi: 10.1186/1475-925x-10-24 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Nygårds M-E, Hulting J (1979) An automated system for ECG monitoring. Comput Biomed Res 12(2):181–202PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Oresko JJ, Zhanpeng J, Jun C, Shimeng H, Yuwen S, Duschl H, Cheng AC (2010) A Wearable smartphone-based platform for real-time cardiovascular disease detection via electrocardiogram processing. IEEE Trans Inf Technol Biomed 14(3):734–740PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Oster J, Pietquin O, Kraemer M, Felblinger J (2010) Nonlinear bayesian filtering for denoising of electrocardiograms acquired in a magnetic resonance environment. IEEE Trans Biomed Eng 57(7):1628–1638PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Pahlm O, Sornmo L (1987) Data Processing of Exercise ECG’s. IEEE Trans BME 34(2):158–165CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Pahlm O, Sörnmo L (1984) Software QRS detection in ambulatory monitoring—a review. Med Biol Eng Comput 22(4):289–297. doi: 10.1007/bf02442095 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Pandian PS, Mohanavelu K, Safeer KP, Kotresh TM, Shakunthala DT, Gopal P, Padaki VC (2008) Smart Vest: wearable multi-parameter remote physiological monitoring system. Med Eng Phys 30(4):466–477PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Poli S, Barbaro V, Bartolini P, Calcagnini G, Censi F (2003) Prediction of atrial fibrillation from surface ECG: review of methods and algorithms. Annali dell’Istituto superiore di sanità 39(2):195PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Pollonini L, Rajan N, Xu S, Madala S, Dacso C (2012) A novel handheld device for use in remote patient monitoring of heart failure patients—design and preliminary validation on healthy subjects. J Med Syst 36(2):653–659. doi: 10.1007/s10916-010-9531-y PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Puurtinen M, Viik J, Hyttinen J (2009) Best electrode locations for a small bipolar ECG device: signal strength analysis of clinical data. Ann Biomed Eng 37(2):331–336. doi: 10.1007/s10439-008-9604-y PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Rahman MZU, Shaik RA, Rama Koti Reddy DV (2011) Efficient sign based normalized adaptive filtering techniques for cancelation of artifacts in ECG signals: application to wireless biotelemetry. Signal Process 91(2):225–239CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Sahin I, Yilmazer N, Simaan MA (2010) A method for subsample fetal heart rate estimation under noisy conditions. IEEE Trans Biomed Eng 57(4):875–883PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Sankari Z, Adeli H (2011) HeartSaver: a mobile cardiac monitoring system for auto-detection of atrial fibrillation, myocardial infarction, and atrio-ventricular block. Comput Biol Med 41(4):211–220PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Sardini E, Serpelloni M (2010) Instrumented wearable belt for wireless health monitoring. Procedia Eng 5:580–583CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Scherr D, Dalal D, Henrikson C, Spragg D, Berger R, Calkins H, Cheng A (2008) Prospective comparison of the diagnostic utility of a standard event monitor versus a “leadless” portable ECG monitor in the evaluation of patients with palpitations. J Interv Cardiac Electrophysiol 22(1):39–44. doi: 10.1007/s10840-008-9251-0 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Schleyer T, Mattsson U, Ni Riordain R, Brailo V, Glick M, Zain R, Jontell M (2011) Advancing oral medicine through informatics and information technology: a proposed framework and strategy. Oral Dis 17:85–94PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Shin W, Cha Y, Yoon G (2010) ECG/PPG integer signal processing for a ubiquitous health monitoring system. J Med Syst 34(5):891–898. doi: 10.1007/s10916-009-9304-7 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Skordalakis E (1986) Syntactic ECG processing: a review. Pattern Recogn 19(4):305–313CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Statistics NZ (2007) New Zealand’s 65+ population: a statistical volume. Statistics New Zealand, Wellington.
  83. 83.
    Steele R, Lo A, Secombe C, Wong YK (2009) Elderly persons’ perception and acceptance of using wireless sensor networks to assist healthcare. Int J Med Inform 78(12):788–801PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Sufi F, Khalil I (2011) Faster person identification using compressed ECG in time critical wireless telecardiology applications. J Netw Comput Appl 34(1):282–293CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Sufi F, Qiang F, Khalil I, Mahmoud SS (2009) Novel methods of faster cardiovascular diagnosis in wireless telecardiology. IEEE J Sel Areas Commun 27(4):537–552CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Sufi F, Khalil I, Mahmood AN (2011) A clustering based system for instant detection of cardiac abnormalities from compressed ECG. Expert Syst Appl 38(5):4705–4713CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Sufi F, Khalil I, Mahmood A (2011) Compressed ECG biometric: a fast, secured and efficient method for identification of CVD patient. J Med Syst 35(6):1349–1358. doi: 10.1007/s10916-009-9412-4 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Tan T-H, Chang C-S, Huang Y-F, Chen Y-F, Lee C (2011) Development of a portable Linux-based ECG measurement and monitoring system. J Med Syst 35(4):559–569. doi: 10.1007/s10916-009-9392-4 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Tay FEH, Guo DG, Xu L, Nyan MN, Yap KL (2009) MEMSWear-biomonitoring system for remote vital signs monitoring. J Franklin Inst 346(6):531–542CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Tseng C-E, Peng C-Y, Chang M-W, Yen J-Y, Lee C-K, Huang T-S (2010) Novel approach to fuzzy-wavelet ECG signal analysis for a mobile device. J Med Syst 34(1):71–81. doi: 10.1007/s10916-008-9217-x PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Übeyli ED (2009) Adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system for classification of ECG signals using Lyapunov exponents. Comput Methods Programs Biomed 93(3):313–321PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    U-j Yoon, Noh Y-S, H-r Yoon (2011) Optimization methods for improving the performance of heart rate detection by a wearable ECG system during high-intensity exercise. Biomed Eng Lett 1(2):143–150. doi: 10.1007/s13534-011-0023-x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Ullah S, Higgins H, Braem B, Latre B, Blondia C, Moerman I, Saleem S, Rahman Z, Kwak K (2010) A comprehensive survey of wireless body area networks. J Med Syst 1–30. doi: 10.1007/s10916-010-9571-3
  94. 94.
    Van Helleputte N, Tomasik JM, Galjan W, Mora-Sanchez A, Schroeder D, Krautschneider WH, Puers R (2008) A flexible system-on-chip (SoC) for biomedical signal acquisition and processing. Sens Actuators A 142(1):361–368CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Vullings R, de Vries B, Bergmans JWM (2011) An adaptive Kalman filter for ECG signal enhancement. IEEE Trans Biomed Eng 58(4):1094–1103PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Wei H, Li H, Tan J (2012) Body sensor network based context-aware QRS detection. J Signal Process Syst 67(2):93–103. doi: 10.1007/s11265-010-0507-4 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Winterhalter M, Schiller J, Münte S, Bund M, Hoy L, Weilbach C, Piepenbrock S, Rahe-Meyer N (2008) Prospective investigation into the influence of various stressors on skin impedance. J Clin Monit Comput 22(1):67–74. doi: 10.1007/s10877-007-9107-7 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    World Health Organization (2003) Active ageing: a policy framework. WHO/NMH/NPH/02.8, 1–60Google Scholar
  99. 99.
    Wu WH, Bui AAT, Batalin MA, Au LK, Binney JD, Kaiser WJ (2008) MEDIC: medical embedded device for individualized care. Artif Intell Med 42(2):137–152PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Wu Y, Rangayyan RM, Zhou Y, Ng S-C (2009) Filtering electrocardiographic signals using an unbiased and normalized adaptive noise reduction system. Med Eng Phys 31(1):17–26PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    Xin L, Yuanjin Z, Myint Wai P, Bin Z, Minkyu J, Xiaojun Y (2011) Multiple functional ECG signal is processing for wearable applications of long-term cardiac monitoring. IEEE Trans Biomed Eng 58(2):380–389CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    Yan J, Lu Y, Liu J, Wu X, Xu Y (2010) Self-adaptive model-based ECG denoising using features extracted by mean shift algorithm. Biomed Signal Process Control 5(2):103–113CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    Yanowitz F, Kinias P, Rawling D, Fozzard HA (1974) Accuracy of a continuous real-time ECG dysrhythmia monitoring system. Circulation 50(1):65–72PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. 104.
    Yoo J, Long Y, Seulki L, Hyejung K, Hoi-Jun Y (2009) A wearable ECG acquisition system with compact planar-fashionable circuit board-based shirt. IEEE Trans Inf Technol Biomed 13(6):897–902PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    Yoo J, Long Y, Seulki L, Hyejung K, Binhee K, Hoi-Jun Y (2009) An Attachable ECG sensor bandage with planar-fashionable circuit board. In: Ferscha A, Stocker G (eds) International Symposium on Wearable Computers, 2009. ISWC ‘09, Linz, Austria, 4–7 Sept 2009. IEEE Computer Society, Conference Publishing Services (CPS), pp 145–146Google Scholar
  106. 106.
    Yoon Y, Cho J, Yoon G (2009) Non-constrained blood pressure monitoring using ECG and PPG for personal healthcare. J Med Syst 33(4):261–266. doi: 10.1007/s10916-008-9186-0 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. 107.
    Yu S-N, Chen Y-H (2009) Noise-tolerant electrocardiogram beat classification based on higher order statistics of subband components. Artif Intell Med 46(2):165–178PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© International Federation for Medical and Biological Engineering 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Mirza Mansoor Baig
    • 1
    Email author
  • Hamid Gholamhosseini
    • 1
  • Martin J. Connolly
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Electrical and Electronics EngineeringSchool of Engineering Auckland University of TechnologyAucklandNew Zealand
  2. 2.Freemasons’ Professor of Geriatric MedicineUniversity of AucklandAucklandNew Zealand

Personalised recommendations