Fluctuation analysis of respiratory impedance waveform in asthmatic patients: effect of airway obstruction
Fluctuation analysis has great potential to contribute to pulmonary clinical science and practice. We evaluated the relationship between asthma and the respiratory impedance recurrence period density entropy (RPDEnZrs) and the variability (SDZrs). A non-invasive and simple protocol for assessing respiratory mechanics during spontaneous breathing was used in a group of 74 subjects with various levels of airway obstruction. Airway obstruction resulted in a reduction in the RPDEnZrs that was significantly correlated with both spirometric indices of airway obstruction (R = 0.48, p < 0.0001) and mean respiratory impedance (R = −0.83, p < 0.0001). These results suggest that the impedance pattern becomes less complex in asthmatic patients, which may explain the reduction in respiratory systems’ adaptability to daily life activities. Preliminary evaluations indicate that RPDEnZrs may contribute to the asthma diagnosis, presenting accuracies of 82 and 87 % in patients with moderate and severe airway obstruction, respectively. On the other hand, SDZrs increased with obstruction (p < 0.0001) and was inversely correlated with spirometric indices of obstruction (R = −0.42, p = 0.0003) and directly associated with mean impedance (R = 0.88, p < 0.0001). This analysis contributes to elucidate previous studies and identified respiratory changes in patients with moderate and severe obstruction with an adequate accuracy (85 and 87 %, respectively).
KeywordsFluctuation analysis Approximate entropy Recurrence period density entropy Variability Respiratory mechanics Complexity Asthma
We would like to thank the anonymous reviewer for constructive comments and propositions. We also wish to thank Alvaro C. D. Faria for assistance with the statistical tests and Guilherme P. Esteves for technical assistance. This study was supported by the Brazilian Council for Scientific and Technological Development (CNPq) and Rio de Janeiro State Research Supporting Foundation (FAPERJ).
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