Medical & Biological Engineering & Computing

, Volume 46, Issue 2, pp 159–168 | Cite as

Temperature measurement on tissue surface during laser irradiation

  • Surya C. Gnyawali
  • Yicho Chen
  • Feng Wu
  • Kenneth E. Bartels
  • James P. Wicksted
  • Hong Liu
  • Chandan K. Sen
  • Wei R. ChenEmail author
Original Article


Tissue surface temperature distribution on the treatment site can serve as an indicator for the effectiveness of a photothermal therapy. In this study, both infrared thermography and theoretical simulation were used to determine the surface temperature distribution during laser irradiation of both gel phantom and animal tumors. Selective photothermal interaction was attempted by using intratumoral indocyanine green enhancement and irradiation via a near-infrared laser. An immunoadjuvant was also used to enhance immunological responses during tumor treatment. Monte Carlo method for tissue absorption of light and finite difference method for heat diffusion in tissue were used to simulate the temperature distribution during the selective laser photothermal interaction. An infrared camera was used to capture the thermal images during the laser treatment and the surface temperature was determined. Our findings show that the theoretical and experimental results are in good agreement and that the surface temperature of irradiated tissue can be controlled with appropriate dye and adjuvant enhancement. These results can be used to control the laser tumor treatment parameters and to optimize the treatment outcome. More importantly, when used with immunotherapy as a precursor of immunological responses, the selective photothermal treatment can be guided by the tissue temperature profiles both in the tumor and on the surface.


Infrared thermography Indocyanine green Glycated chitosan Surface temperature Monte Carlo simulation 



This research was supported in part by grants from the University of Central Oklahoma and the National Institute of Health (P20 RR016478 from the INBRE Program of the National Center for Research Resources, CA104773; RO1 GM 077185, GM 069589 and HL073087). The author (HL) would like to acknowledge the support of the Charles and Jean Smith Chair Endowment fund.


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Copyright information

© International Federation for Medical and Biological Engineering 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  • Surya C. Gnyawali
    • 1
    • 6
  • Yicho Chen
    • 2
  • Feng Wu
    • 3
  • Kenneth E. Bartels
    • 4
  • James P. Wicksted
    • 1
  • Hong Liu
    • 5
  • Chandan K. Sen
    • 6
  • Wei R. Chen
    • 2
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of PhysicsOklahoma State UniversityStillwaterUSA
  2. 2.Biomedical Engineering Program, Department of Engineering and Physics, College of Mathematics and ScienceUniversity of Central OklahomaEdmondUSA
  3. 3.Clinical Center for Tumor Therapy of 2nd Affiliated Hospital, and Institute of Ultrasonic Engineering in MedicineChongqing Medical UniversityChongqingChina
  4. 4.Department of Veterinary Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary MedicineOklahoma State UniversityStillwaterUSA
  5. 5.Center for Bioengineering and School of Electrical and Computer EngineeringUniversity of OklahomaNormanUSA
  6. 6.Department of Surgery, Davis Heart and Lung Research InstituteThe Ohio State University Medical CenterColumbusUSA

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