Soft tissue modelling through autowaves for surgery simulation

  • Yongmin ZhongEmail author
  • Bijan Shirinzadeh
  • Gursel Alici
  • Julian Smith
Original Article


Modelling of soft tissue deformation is of great importance to virtual reality based surgery simulation. This paper presents a new methodology for simulation of soft tissue deformation by drawing an analogy between autowaves and soft tissue deformation. The potential energy stored in a soft tissue as a result of a deformation caused by an external force is propagated among mass points of the soft tissue by non-linear autowaves. The novelty of the methodology is that (i) autowave techniques are established to describe the potential energy distribution of a deformation for extrapolating internal forces, and (ii) non-linear materials are modelled with non-linear autowaves other than geometric non-linearity. Integration with a haptic device has been achieved to simulate soft tissue deformation with force feedback. The proposed methodology not only deals with large-range deformations, but also accommodates isotropic, anisotropic and inhomogeneous materials by simply changing diffusion coefficients.


Virtual reality Surgery simulation Soft tissue deformation Autowaves Haptic feedback and analogous systems 



This research is supported by the Australian Research Council (ARC) Discovery grant (ARC Discovery: DP034946).


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Copyright information

© International Federation for Medical and Biological Engineering 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  • Yongmin Zhong
    • 1
    Email author
  • Bijan Shirinzadeh
    • 1
  • Gursel Alici
    • 2
  • Julian Smith
    • 3
  1. 1.Robotics and Mechatronics Research Laboratory, Department of Mechanical EngineeringMonash UniversityClaytonAustralia
  2. 2.School of Mechanical, Materials, and Mechatronics EngineeringUniversity of WollongongWollongongAustralia
  3. 3.Department of Surgery, Monash Medical CentreMonash UniversityClaytonAustralia

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