Pulse wave transit time for monitoring respiration rate
- 414 Downloads
In this study, we investigate the beat-to-beat respiratory fluctuations in pulse wave transit time (PTT) and its subcomponents, the cardiac pre-ejection period (PEP) and the vessel transit time (VTT) in ten healthy subjects. The three transit times were found to fluctuate in pace with respiration. When applying a simple breath detecting algorithm, 88% of the breaths seen in a respiration air-flow reference could be detected correctly in PTT. Corresponding numbers for PEP and VTT were 76 and 81%, respectively. The performance during hypo- and hypertension was investigated by invoking blood pressure changes. In these situations, the error rates in breath detection were significantly higher. PTT can be derived from signals already present in most standard monitoring set-ups. The transit time technology thus has prospects to become an interesting alternative for respiration rate monitoring.
KeywordsPulse wave transit time Respiration rate Respiration monitoring Blood pressure Photoplethysmography
The authors are grateful to Christina Svensson, Bettan Kindberg and Kerstin Nilsson at the Department of Clinical Physiology, Linköping University Hospital, for help and support during the measurements. This study was supported by the Swedish Knowledge Foundation, the Swedish National Centre of Excellence for Non-invasive Medical Measurements (NIMED), the Swedish Research Council (Grants 12661 and 40375701), the Swedish Agency for Innovation Systems (P26084-1) and the Swedish Heart Lung Foundation.
- 1.Ahlstrom C, Johansson A, Lanne T, Ask P (2004) A respiration monitor based on ECG and photoplethysmographic sensor fusion. In: Proceeding of 26th Annual International Conference IEEE EMBS, San FranciscoGoogle Scholar
- 3.Argod J, Pepin JL, Levy P (1998) Differentiating obstructive and central sleep respiratory events through pulse transit time. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 158:1778–1783Google Scholar
- 4.Argod J, Pepin JL, Smith RP, Levy P (2000) Comparison of esophageal pressure with pulse transit time as a measure of respiratory effort for scoring obstructive nonapneic respiratory events. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 162:87–93Google Scholar
- 6.El-Asir B, Khadra L, Al-Abbasi AH, Mohammed MMJ (1996) Time–frequency analysis of heart sounds. Proc IEEE Tencon Digit Signal Proc Appl 2:553–558Google Scholar
- 7.Franchi D, Bedini R, Manfredini F, Berti S, Palagi G, Ghione S, Ripoli A (1996) Blood pressure evaluation based on arterial pulse wave velocity. Comput Cardiol 9:397–400Google Scholar
- 8.Gilbert R, Auchincloss JH, Brodsky J, Boden W (1972) Changes in tidal volume, frequency, and ventilation induced by their measurement. J Appl Physiol 33:252–254Google Scholar
- 10.Johansson A, Hok B (2004) Sensors for respiratory monitoring In: Oberg PA, Togawa T, Spelman F (eds) Sensors applications, sensors in medicine and health care, Wiley-VCH, New YorkGoogle Scholar
- 14.Lea S, Ali NJ, Goldman M, Loh L, Fleetham J, Stradling JR (1990) Systolic blood pressure swings reflect inspiratory effort during simulated obstructive sleep apnoea. In: Horne J (ed) Sleep, Pontanagel Press, Bochum, pp 178–181Google Scholar
- 18.Olsen H, Vernersson E, Lanne T (2000) Cardiovascular response to acute hypovolemia in relation to age. Implications for orthostasis and haemorrhage. Am J Physiol 278: H222–H232Google Scholar
- 21.Pitson DJ, Chhina N, Kniijn S, van Herwaaden M, Stradling JR (1995a) Mechanism of pulse transit time lengthening during inspiratory effort. J Ambul Monit 8:101–105Google Scholar
- 25.Wolthuis RA, Bergman SA, Nicogossian AE (1974) Physiological effects of locally applied reduced pressure in man. Physiol Rev 54:566–595Google Scholar