Membrane electroporation theories: a review



Electroporation, the transient increase in the permeability of cell membranes when exposed to a high electric field, is an established in vitro technique and is used to introduce DNA or other molecules into cells. When the trans-membrane voltage induced by an external electric field exceeds a certain threshold (normally 0.2–1 V), a rearrangement of the molecular structure of the membrane occurs, leading to pore formation in the membrane and a considerable increase in the cell membrane permeability to ions, molecules and even macromolecules. This phenomenon is, potentially, the basis for many in vivo applications such as electrochemotherapy and gene therapy, but still lacks a comprehensive theoretical basis. This article reviews the state of current electroporation theories and briefly considers current and potential applications in biology and medicine.


Electroporation Electropermeabilisation Cell membrane Aqueous pore model Electric fields 

Copyright information

© International Federation for Medical and Biological Engineering 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of ElectronicsUniversity of YorkYorkUK
  2. 2.Department of Medical Physics and Engineering, Leeds Teaching HospitalsSt. James’s University HospitalLeedsUK
  3. 3.Academic Unit of Medical PhysicsUniversity of LeedsLeedsUK

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