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Food Biophysics

, Volume 14, Issue 1, pp 80–89 | Cite as

Caffeic Acid Phenethyl Ester Loaded in Microemulsions: Enhanced In Vitro Activity against Colon and Breast Cancer Cells and Possible Cellular Mechanisms

  • Huaiqiong Chen
  • Yongguang Guan
  • Seung Joon Baek
  • Qixin ZhongEmail author
ORIGINAL ARTICLE
  • 68 Downloads

Abstract

Caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE) has high cytotoxicity against various cancer cells but has low water solubility and poor bioavailability. The objective of this work was to study a fully-dilutable oil-in-water microemulsion as a delivery vehicle of CAPE and the impacts on cellular uptake and expression of relevant proteins. Up to 3.30% w/w CAPE was dissolved in the microemulsion with droplets smaller than 20 nm and stable in 180 days. CAPE in the microemulsion had the significantly increased anti-proliferative activity against human HCT-116 colorectal and MCF-7 breast cancer cells than that in dimethyl sulfoxide. Dissolving CAPE in the microemulsion enhanced the cellular uptake according to fluorescence microscopy, flow cytometry, and HPLC. Subsequently, cyclin D1 was suppressed and p53 was induced, which regulated cell cycle and apoptosis, respectively, thereby enhancing anti-cancer activity. Findings from the present work suggest the potential of the studied microemulsion as a vehicle of CAPE for development of cancer intervention strategies.

Keywords

Microemulsion Caffeic acid phenethyl ester Colon cancer Breast cancer Cellular uptake Protein expression 

Notes

Acknowledgments

The authors would like to thank Dianne Jean Trent for the technical assistance in flow cytometry and Dr. Gabriel Silva for providing training and technical assistance on western blotting analysis. This work was supported by the University of Tennessee Institute of Agriculture and the USDA NIFA Hatch Project 223984. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the view of the U.S. Department of Agriculture.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

The authors declare no competing financial interest.

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Huaiqiong Chen
    • 1
  • Yongguang Guan
    • 1
  • Seung Joon Baek
    • 2
    • 3
  • Qixin Zhong
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of Food ScienceThe University of TennesseeKnoxvilleUSA
  2. 2.Department of Biomedical and Diagnostic SciencesThe University of TennesseeKnoxvilleUSA
  3. 3.College of Veterinary Medicine and Research Institute for Veterinary ScienceSeoul National UniversitySeoulRepublic of Korea

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