Food Biophysics

, Volume 13, Issue 4, pp 353–361 | Cite as

Lactose-Free Milk Preparation by Immobilized Lactase in Glass Microsphere Bed Reactor

  • Chih-Yuan Ko
  • Jui-Ming Liu
  • Kuan-I Chen
  • Chang-Wei Hsieh
  • Yung-Lin Chu
  • Kuan-Chen ChengEmail author


The high prevalence of lactose intolerance was observed in Asian population. Lactose-free milk is a beneficial product to ameliorate this disorder. A lactase immobilized catalytic system for lactose-free milk preparation was established in the present study. The results show that lactase was covalently immobilized on the glass microspheres exhibited a highly efficient catalytic manner (the immobilization yield is about 83.2%) over other three solid carriers (PAN beads, cellulose beads, and nylon pellets). Optimal conditions were determined to be at room temperature and pH 6.0 using O-nitrophenyl-D-galactopyranoside as an indicator. Scanning electron microscopy and electron spectroscopy for chemical analysis provided direct evidence that lactase was successfully immobilized on the glass microspheres. Operational reusability was confirmed for more than 10 batch reactions and the stability was capable of sustaining catalytic activity for 62 days (the relative activity is still around 60%). Flow rate of 60 mL/h in the packed lactase immobilized on glass microspheres reactor is the optimal condition for lactose-free milk preparation. Lactose within milk can be completely hydrolyzed in 33.3 min. These results provided a good indication for the procedure for lactose-free milk preparation in dairy industry.


Enzyme immobilization Glass microspheres Lactase Lactose-free milk Reactor design 



This study was partly funded by the National Science Council, Taiwan, under contract no. 104-2221-E-002-125-MY3, Ministry of Science and Technology, Taiwan, under contract no. 106-2628-E-002-009-MY3, and the Quanzhou Science and Technology Project, China, under contract No. 2017Z016 and No. 2018Z107.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declared no conflicts of interest.

Supplementary material

11483_2018_9541_MOESM1_ESM.docx (47 kb)
ESM 1 (DOCX 46 kb)


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© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicinethe Second Affiliated Hospital of Fujian Medical UniversityQuanzhouChina
  2. 2.Respiratory Medicine Center of Fujian ProvinceQuanzhouChina
  3. 3.Graduate Institute of Food Science & TechnologyNational Taiwan UniversityTaipeiTaiwan
  4. 4.Division of Urology, Department of Surgery, Ministry of Health and Welfare. 1492Taoyuan General HospitalTaoyuanTaiwan
  5. 5.Department of Food science and biotechnologyNational Chung Hsing UniversityTaichungTaiwan, Republic of China
  6. 6.International Master’s Degree Program in Food Science, International CollegeNational Pingtung University of Science and TechnologyNeipuTaiwan
  7. 7.Institute of BiotechnologyNational Taiwan UniversityTaipeiTaiwan
  8. 8.Department of Medical Research, China Medical University HospitalChina Medical UniversityTaichungTaiwan

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