Advertisement

Food Biophysics

, Volume 1, Issue 2, pp 83–93 | Cite as

Surface Layer Properties of Dough Liquor Components: Are They Key Parameters in Gas Retention in Bread Dough?

  • Cristina Primo-Martín
  • Robert J. Hamer
  • Harmen H. J. de Jongh
Original Research

Abstract

Gas cell stability during bread making is controlled by both surface and bulk properties. This paper is focused on studying the surface properties of the water-soluble phase of the dough, the dough liquor (with and without lipids), as well as the composition of the air/water interface. Using infrared reflection measurements, we showed that in lipid-poor liquor, proteins are the dominant species present at the air/water interface. With complete liquor (including the lipids), a mixed interface of protein and lipids is obtained. However, the presence of lipids in the surface layer did not significantly affect the surface pressure. We also added enzymes to the flour to evaluate in what way the surface-active properties of the liquor components can be affected. These results were compared to the effect of adding a surfactant [diacetyl tartaric esters of mono- and diglycerides (DATEM)]. Biobake 10804, a xylanase that increased the arabinoxylan content of the dough liquor, decreased the surface pressure and increased the dilational modulus in lipid-poor liquor. This effect was not observed with the liquor including the lipids. Lipopan 50 BG, a 1,3-specific lipase, increased the surface pressure of the liquor that included the lipids. Lipopan F BG, which converts polar lipids to their lyso form, strongly increased the surface pressure not only in the lipid-containing liquor but also in the lipid-poor liquor. DATEM, as expected, increased the surface pressure while strongly decreasing the dilational modulus. Results of these studies were used to help explain changes in loaf volume observed in a series of baking tests, using the same enzymes and additives. This led to the conclusion that the effect of surface-active components alone cannot account for the larger loaf volumes observed. Clearly, both the effect of bulk and interfacial rheological properties should be considered together when explaining gas cell stability.

Key words

Gas cell stability Surface activity Lipases Xylanase Dough liquor DATEM 

Notes

Acknowledgements

The authors would like to thank Jolan de Groot for her experimental contribution. Also, Peter Wierenga is kindly acknowledged for his help with IRRAS measurements.

References

  1. 1.
    T. Vliet, A.M. Jansssen, A.H. Bloksma, P.Walstra, J Texture Stud 23, 439 (1992)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    B.J. Dobraszczyk, J. Smewing, M. Albertini, G. Maesmans, J.D. Schofield, Cereal Chem 80, 218 (2003)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Z. Gan, R. Angold, M.R. Williams, P.R. Ellis, J.G. Vaughan, T. Galliard, J Cereal Sci 12, 15 (1990)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Z. Gan, P.R. Ellis, J.D. Shofield, J Cereal Sci 2, 215 (1995)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    S.S. Sahi, J Cereal Sci 20, 119 (1994)Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    S.S. Sahi, J Cereal Sci 37, 205 (2003)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    E.N.C. Mills, P.J. Wilde, L.J. Salt, P. Skeggs, Trans Ichem Em 81C, 189 (2003)Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    W. Kloek, T. van Vliet, M. Meinders, J Colloid Interf Sci 237, 158 (2001)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    J.J. Kokelaar, Physics of breadmaking, Ph.D. thesis, Wageningen Agricultural University, Wageningen, The Netherlands, 1994Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    R.C.A. Keller, R. Orsel, R.J. Hamer, J Cereal Sci 25, 175 (1997)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    D.K. Sarker, P.J. Wilde, D.C. Clark, Cereal Chem 75, 493 (1998)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    U. Elofsson, A.C. Eliasson, M. Wahlgren, A.M.A. Loosveld, C.M. Courtin, J.A. Delcour, Cereal Chem 77, 679 (2000)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    N.O. Carr, and P.J. Frazier, In: Wheat Structure, Biochemistry and Functionality, edited by J.D. Shofield. (Royal Society of Chemistry, London, UK 1995), p. 280Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    ICC International Association for Cereal Chemistry. Ash nr101/1. Protein nr. 167. Water absorption, farinograph (Brabender) nr 115/1. Energy input, alveograph (Chopin) nr 121. Starch nr 128/1. Fat nr 136.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    H. Larsson, A.C. Eliasson, Cereal Chem 73, 18 (1996)Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    M. Dubois, K.A. Gilles, J.K. Hamilton, D.A. Rebers, F. Smith, Anal Chem 28, 350 (1956)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    J. Benjamins, A. Cagna, E.H. Lucassen-Reynders, Colloids Surf A 114, 245 (1996)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    M.B.J. Meinders, G.G.M. van den Bosch, H.H.J. de Jongh, Trends in Food Sci Technol 11, 218 (2000)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    L. Dubreil, S. Melinole, H. Chiron, J.P. Compoint, L. Quillen, G. Branlard, D. Marion, Cereal Chem 75, 222 (1998)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    M. Izydorczyk, C.G. Biliaderis, W. Bushuk, Cereal Chem 68, 145 (1991)Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    C. Primo-Martín, R. Valera, M.A. Martínez-Anaya, J Agric Food Chem 51, 4673 (2003)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    C. Primo-Martín, M. Wang, W. Lichtendonk, J.J. Plijter, R.J. Hamer, J Sci Food Agric 85, 1186 (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    M.W. Wang, R.J. Hamer, T. van Vliet, G.J. Oudgenoeg, Cereal Sci 36, 25 (2002)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    M.W. Wang, T. van Vliet, R.J. Hamer, J Cereal Sci 39, 395 (2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    D. Marion, D.C. Clark, In: Wheat Structure, Biochemistry and Functionality, edited by J.D. Shofield. (Royal Society of Chemistry, London, UK 1995) p. 245Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    F. MacRitchie, Cereal Chem 50, 292 (1973)Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    M.A. Bos, T. van Vliet, Adv Colloid Interface Sci 91, 437 (2001)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    P.J. Wilde, D.C. Clark, D. Marion, J Agric Food Chem 41, 1570 (1993)CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, Inc. 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  • Cristina Primo-Martín
    • 1
  • Robert J. Hamer
    • 1
    • 2
  • Harmen H. J. de Jongh
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Wageningen Centre for Food SciencesWageningenThe Netherlands
  2. 2.TNO Quality of LifeZeistThe Netherlands

Personalised recommendations