Development and Validation of a Questionnaire on Chinese Parents’ Beliefs in Parental Roles and Responsibilities

  • Ching Man Lam
  • Siu Ming To
  • Wai Man Kwong


Parental beliefs concerning parental roles and responsibilities are a crucial domain in the study of parental cognitions, an emic measure of which is not available in Chinese societies. In the context of a mixed-methods study on generational shifts in parental beliefs of five cohorts of Chinese parents in Hong Kong, we developed and validated a culturally- and diachronically-sensitive quantitative measure of parental beliefs on parental roles and responsibilities. A non-random proportionate sample (N = 5,707) of 5 generational cohorts of parents (the earliest cohort being parents of young children in the 1970’s and before) responded to a questionnaire of parental beliefs. An exploratory factor analysis of the data collected from the first sub-sample (n = 2,925) yielded a 23-item fivefold factor structure. A confirmatory factor analysis of the data collected from the second sub-sample (n = 2,596) demonstrated an acceptable model fit. The discovered factors pointed to parental beliefs clustered around five sets of parental roles and responsibilities: (1) parental nurturance of children; (2) parenthood as a normative life stage; (3) parental guidance of the young; (4) fulfilling children’s needs; and (5) readiness to relax and restrict parental control. Cross-cohort analysis confirms the presence of significant generational differences in all 5 sets of parental beliefs. This emic quantitative measure provides a culturally-sensitive scale for studying parental beliefs about parental roles and responsibilities in a Chinese cultural context.


Parental beliefs Parenting Chinese Scale development Scale validation 


Compliance with Ethical Standards

Ethical Approval

The study had obtained ethical approval from the Survey and Behavioral Ethics Committee of the Chinese University of Hong Kong at the time of the research grant application.


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Copyright information

© The International Society for Quality-of-Life Studies (ISQOLS) and Springer Nature B.V. 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Social Work DepartmentThe Chinese University of Hong KongShatinHong Kong
  2. 2.Department of Applied Social SciencesCity University of Hong KongKowloon TongHong Kong

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