Advertisement

Development and Validation of a Questionnaire on Chinese Parents’ Beliefs in Parental Roles and Responsibilities

  • Ching Man Lam
  • Siu Ming To
  • Wai Man Kwong
Article
  • 55 Downloads

Abstract

Parental beliefs concerning parental roles and responsibilities are a crucial domain in the study of parental cognitions, an emic measure of which is not available in Chinese societies. In the context of a mixed-methods study on generational shifts in parental beliefs of five cohorts of Chinese parents in Hong Kong, we developed and validated a culturally- and diachronically-sensitive quantitative measure of parental beliefs on parental roles and responsibilities. A non-random proportionate sample (N = 5,707) of 5 generational cohorts of parents (the earliest cohort being parents of young children in the 1970’s and before) responded to a questionnaire of parental beliefs. An exploratory factor analysis of the data collected from the first sub-sample (n = 2,925) yielded a 23-item fivefold factor structure. A confirmatory factor analysis of the data collected from the second sub-sample (n = 2,596) demonstrated an acceptable model fit. The discovered factors pointed to parental beliefs clustered around five sets of parental roles and responsibilities: (1) parental nurturance of children; (2) parenthood as a normative life stage; (3) parental guidance of the young; (4) fulfilling children’s needs; and (5) readiness to relax and restrict parental control. Cross-cohort analysis confirms the presence of significant generational differences in all 5 sets of parental beliefs. This emic quantitative measure provides a culturally-sensitive scale for studying parental beliefs about parental roles and responsibilities in a Chinese cultural context.

Keywords

Parental beliefs Parenting Chinese Scale development Scale validation 

Notes

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Ethical Approval

The study had obtained ethical approval from the Survey and Behavioral Ethics Committee of the Chinese University of Hong Kong at the time of the research grant application.

References

  1. Atkinson, R. (1998). The life story interview. Thousand Oaks: Sage.Google Scholar
  2. Bollen, K. A. (1989). Structural equations with latent variables. New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  3. Bond, M. H. (2010). Moving the scientific study of Chinese psychology into our twenty-first century: Some ways forward. In M. H. Bond (Ed.), The Oxford handbook of Chinese psychology (pp. 711–715). New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  4. Bond, M. H., & Van de Vijver, F. J. R. (2011). Making scientific sense of cultural differences in psychological outcomes: Unpackaging the magnum mysterium. In D. Matsumoto & F. J. R. van de Vijver (Eds.), Cross-cultural research methods in psychology (pp. 75–100). New York: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  5. Bornstein, M. H., & Cheah, C. S. (2006). The place of “culture and parenting” in the ecological contextual perspective on developmental science. Parenting beliefs, behaviors, and parent-child relations: A cross-cultural perspective (pp. 3–33). New York: Psychology Press.Google Scholar
  6. Census and Statistics Department. (2011). Results of the 2011 Population Census. Retrieved June 22, 2018, from https://www.censtatd.gov.hk/hkstat/sub/so170.jsp
  7. Census and Statistics Department. (2017). Snapshot of the Hong Kong Population of 2016 Population By-census. Retrieved December 13, 2018, from https://www.bycensus2016.gov.hk/data/snapshotPDF/Snapshot04.pdf.
  8. Chan, S. M., Bowes, J., & Wyver, S. (2009). Chinese parenting in Hong Kong: Links among goals, beliefs and styles. Early Child Development and Care, 179(7), 849–862.Google Scholar
  9. Chao, R. K. (1994). Beyond parental control and authoritarian parenting style: Understanding Chinese parenting through the cultural notion of training. Child Development, 65, 1111–1119.Google Scholar
  10. Chen, X., Bian, Y., Xin, T., Wang, L., & Silbereisen, R. K. (2010). Perceived social change and childrearing attitudes in China. European Psychologist, 15, 260–270.Google Scholar
  11. Chuang, S. S., Glozman, J., Green, D. S., & Rasmi, S. (2018). Parenting and family relationships in Chinese families: A critical ecological approach. Journal of Family Theory & Review, 10(2), 367–383.Google Scholar
  12. Clarke-Stewart, K. A. (1998). Historical shifts and underlying themes in ideas about rearing young children in the United States: Where have we been? Where are we going? Early Development and Parenting: An International Journal of Research and Practice, 7(2), 101–117.Google Scholar
  13. Darling, N., & Steinberg, L. (1993). Parenting style as context: An integrated model. Psychological Bulletin, 113(3), 487–496.Google Scholar
  14. Ferketich, S. (1991). Focus on psychometrics: Aspects of item analysis. Research in Nursing & Health, 14, 165–168.Google Scholar
  15. Fok, H. K., & Shek, D. T. (2011a). A methodological critique of parenting research in Hong Kong. International Journal of Adolescent Medicine and Health, 23(2), 93–99.Google Scholar
  16. Fok, H. K., & Shek, D. T. (2011b). A conceptual critique of parenting research in Hong Kong. International Journal of Adolescent Medicine and Health, 23(2), 101–107.Google Scholar
  17. Francis, S. E., & Chorpita, B. F. (2010). Development and evaluation of the parental beliefs about anxiety questionnaire. Journal of Psychopathology and Behavioral Assessment, 32(1), 138–149.Google Scholar
  18. Fung, H., Li, J., & Lam, C. K. (2017). Multi-faceted discipline strategies of Chinese parenting. International Journal of Behavioral Development, 41(4), 472–481.Google Scholar
  19. George, D., & Mallery, P. (2003). SPSS for Windows step by step: A simple guide and reference. 11.0 update (4th ed.). Boston: Allyn & Bacon.Google Scholar
  20. Guo, K. (2006). Raising children in Chinese immigrant families. Australian Journal of early childhood, 31(2), 7–13.Google Scholar
  21. Halberstadt, A. G., Dunsmore, J. C., Bryant, A., Jr., Parker, A. E., Beale, K. S., & Thompson, J. A. (2013). Development and validation of the parents’ beliefs about Children’s emotions questionnaire. Psychological Assessment, 25(4), 1195–1210.Google Scholar
  22. Harkness, S., & Super, C. M. (2002). Culture and parenting. Handbook of Parenting, 2, 253–280.Google Scholar
  23. Harter, S. (2012). The construction of the self: Developmental and sociocultural foundation (2nd ed.). New York: Guiford.Google Scholar
  24. Hinkin, T. R. (1998). A brief tutorial on the development of measures for use in survey questionnaires. Organizational Research Methods, 1(1), 104–121.Google Scholar
  25. Ho, D. Y. F. (1995). Selfhood and identity in Confucianism, Taoism, Buddhism, and Hinduism: Contrasts with the West. Journal for the Theory of Social Behavior, 25(2), 115–139.Google Scholar
  26. Ho, D. Y. F., & Kang, T. K. (1984). Intergenerational comparisons of child-rearing attitudes and practices in Hong Kong. Developmental Psychology, 20(6), 1004–1016.Google Scholar
  27. Inglehart, R. (1997). Modernization and postmodernization: Cultural, economic, and political changes in 43 societies. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
  28. Kim, S. Y., & Wong, V. Y. (2002). Assessing Asian and Asian American parenting: A review of the literature. In Asian American mental health (pp. 185–201). Boston: Springer.Google Scholar
  29. Lam, C. M. (2003). Parent education: Vision and revision. Asian Journal of Counseling 10 (2), 147–168.Google Scholar
  30. Lam, C. M. (2005a). In search of the meaning of parent education in the Hong Kong-Chinese context. In M. J. Kane (Ed.), Contemporary issues in parenting (pp. 111–124). New York: Nova Science.Google Scholar
  31. Lam, C. M. (2005b). Chinese construction of adolescent development outcome: Themes discerned in a qualitative study. Child and Adolescent Social Work Journal, 22, 111–131.Google Scholar
  32. Lam, C. M., & Chan-So, P. C. Y. (2015). Validation of the Chinese version of differentiation of self inventory (C-DSI). Journal of Marital and Family Therapy, 41(1), 86–101.  https://doi.org/10.1111/jmft.12031.Google Scholar
  33. Lam, C. M., & Kwong, W. M. (2012). The ‘paradox of empowerment’ in parent education: A reflexive examination of parents’ pedagogical expectations in an action research project. Family Relations, 61(1), 65–74.Google Scholar
  34. Lam, C. M., & Kwong, W. M. (2014). Powerful parent educators and powerless parents: The “empowerment paradox” in parent education. Journal of Social Work, 14(2), 183–195.Google Scholar
  35. Leung, T. T. F., & Lam, C. M. (2009). The warrants of parenting: Emotionality and reflexivity in economically disadvantaged families. Journal of Social Work Practice, 23, 353–367.Google Scholar
  36. Leung, J. T., & Shek, D. T. (2013). Parental beliefs and parental sacrifice of Chinese parents experiencing economic disadvantage in Hong Kong: Implications for social work. British Journal of Social Work, 45(4), 1119–1136.Google Scholar
  37. Liss, M., Schiffrin, H. H., Mackintosh, V. H., Miles-Mclean, H., & Erchull, M. J. (2013). Development and validation of a quantitative measure of intensive parenting attitudes. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 22, 621–636.Google Scholar
  38. Luk-Fong, Y. Y. P. (2005). A search for new ways of describing parent-child relationships: Voices from principals, teachers, guidance professionals, parents and pupils. Childhood, 12(1), 111–137.Google Scholar
  39. Mannheim, K. (1997). The problem of generation. In P. Kecskemeti (Ed.), Essays on the sociology of knowledge (pp. 276–320). London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  40. McGillicuddy-De Lisi, A. V., & Sigel, I. E. (1995). Parental beliefs. In M. H. Bornstein (Ed.), Handbook of parenting (Vol. 3: Status and social conditions of parenting, pp. 333–358). Mahwah: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.Google Scholar
  41. Merrell, K. W., Felver-Grant, J., & Tom, K. M. (2011). Development and validation of a parent report measure for assessing social-emotional competencies of children and adolescents. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 20, 529–540.Google Scholar
  42. Ng, F. F. Y., Pomerantz, E. M., & Deng, C. (2014). Why are Chinese mothers more controlling than American mothers? “My child is my report card”. Child Development, 85(1), 355–369.Google Scholar
  43. Nuffield Foundation. (2009). Time trends in parenting and outcomes for young people. London: Nuffield Foundation.Google Scholar
  44. Park, H., Coello, J. A., & Lau, A. S. (2014). Child socialization goals in east Asian versus Western nations from 1989 to 2010: Evidence for social change in parenting. Parenting, 14(2), 69–91.Google Scholar
  45. Prager, E., Savaya, R., & Bar-Tur, L. (2000). The development of a culturally sensitive measure of sources of life meaning. In G. T. Reker & K. Chamberlain (Eds.), Exploring existential meaning: Optimizing human development across the life span (pp. 123–138). Thousand Oaks: Sage.Google Scholar
  46. Radey, M., & Randolph, K. A. (2009). Parenting sources: How do parents differ in their efforts to learn about parenting? Family Relations, 58(5), 536–548.Google Scholar
  47. Schwab, D. P. (1980). Construct validity in organizational behavior. Research in Organizational Behavior, 2(1), 3–43.Google Scholar
  48. Shek, D. T., & Sun, R. C. (2014). Parenting in Hong Kong: Traditional Chinese cultural roots and contemporary phenomena. In Parenting across cultures (pp. 25–38). Dordrecht: Springer.Google Scholar
  49. Sigel, I. E. (1985). A conceptual analysis of beliefs. Parental belief systems: The psychological Consequences for Children, 1, 345–371.Google Scholar
  50. Sigel, I. E., & McGillicuddy-De Lisi, A. V. (2002). Parent beliefs are cognitions: The dynamic belief systems model. In M. H. Bornstein (Ed.), Handbook of parenting (2nd ed.), Vol. 3: Being and becoming a parent (pp. 485–508). Mahwah: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.Google Scholar
  51. Smith, M. C., Loon, P. C., DeFrates-Densch, N., & Schrader, T. O. (1998). Content changes in parent education books for parents of adolescents. Family and Consumer Sciences Research Journal, 27(2), 194–213.Google Scholar
  52. So, Y. Y. (2016). Making Sense of Parental Anxiety: Narratives of Lived Experiences of Hong Kong Chinese Parents (Doctoral dissertation, The Chinese University of Hong Kong).Google Scholar
  53. Steven, J. P. (2009). Applied multivariate statistics for the social sciences (5th ed.). New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  54. Stewart, S. M., Rao, N., Bond, M. H., McBride-Chang, C., Fielding, R., & Kennard, B. D. (1998). Chinese dimensions of parenting: Broadening Western predictors and outcomes. International Journal of Psychology, 33(5), 345–358.Google Scholar
  55. Stewart, S. M., & Bond, M. H. (2002). A critical look at parenting research from the mainstream: Problems uncovered while adapting Western research to non‐Western cultures. British Journal of Developmental Psychology, 20(3), 379–392.Google Scholar
  56. Taubman-Ben-Ari, O., Shlomo, S. B., & Findler, L. (2012). Personal growth and meaning in life among first-time mothers and grandmothers. Journal of Happiness Studies, 13, 801–820.Google Scholar
  57. To, S. M. (2015). Development and validation of a quantitative measure for the Chinese sources of parental meaning. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 24, 3580–3594.Google Scholar
  58. To, S. M., & Chan, T. S. (2013). Searching for the meaning of parenthood: An existential approach to parent education in the Hong Kong-Chinese context. International Social Work, 56, 467–481.Google Scholar
  59. To, S. M., & Tam, H. L. (2014). Generational differences in work values, perceived job rewards, and job satisfaction of Chinese female migrant workers: Implications for social policy and social services. Social Indicators Research, 118, 1315–1332.Google Scholar
  60. To, S. M., So, Y. Y., Iu Kan, S. M., Tsoi, K. W., & Chan, T. S. (2018). Supporting parents in late modernity through parent education: A mixed methods study in Hong Kong. Journal of Social Work, 18(2), 164–184.Google Scholar
  61. Wang, Q., & Chang, L. (2010). Parenting and child socialization in contemporary China. In M. H. Bond (Ed.), Oxford library of psychology. The Oxford handbook of Chinese psychology (pp. 53–67). New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  62. Way, N., Okazaki, S., Zhao, J., Kim, J. J., Chen, X., Yoshikawa, H., & Deng, H. (2013). Social and emotional parenting: Mothering in a changing Chinese society. Asian American Journal of Psychology, 4(1), 61.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The International Society for Quality-of-Life Studies (ISQOLS) and Springer Nature B.V. 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Social Work DepartmentThe Chinese University of Hong KongShatinHong Kong
  2. 2.Department of Applied Social SciencesCity University of Hong KongKowloon TongHong Kong

Personalised recommendations