Bullying, Cyberbullying, Student Life Satisfaction and the Community of Chilean Adolescents

  • Jorge J. Varela
  • Javier Guzmán
  • Jaime Alfaro
  • Fernando Reyes
Article
  • 36 Downloads

Abstract

Feeling support from the community is a vital aspect of adolescents’ quality of life. Negative experiences at school, such as bullying and cyberbullying can have an adverse impact on adolescents’ life satisfaction that can expand to different domains of their lives including community variables. The goal of the present study was to examine the association between peer victimization, life satisfaction and community support among Chilean adolescents. We used a sample of 497 youths enrolled in grades 9 to 12 of public and private schools in different Chilean districts. Results indicate a negative association between bullying and cyberbullying behavior on community support through life satisfaction. Peer victimization can have negative consequences for youths at a personal level on their assessments of life satisfaction, which can expand to feeling less support from the community. Feeling less support from the community can be detrimental to healthy youth development and adolescents’ quality of life. Community prevention efforts can thus provide emotional support for youth victims of bullying and cyberbullying.

Keywords

Quality of life Life satisfaction Community Bullying Cyberbullying Adolescence 

Notes

Acknowledgements

The authors would like to thank Universidad del Desarrollo for funding the following research projects used for this study: (1) “Validation of a battery of instruments for the study of subjective well-being and social well-being in Chilean adolescents” and (2) “Proposal of an explanatory model of well-being in adolescents”.

References

  1. Alfaro Inzunza, J., Guzmán Piña, J., García Gómez, C., Sirlopú Díaz, D., Oyanedel Sepúlveda, J. C., & Gaudlitz Ruiz, L. (2014). Propiedades psicométricas de la escala Breve Multidimensional de Satisfacción con la Vida para Estudiantes (BMSLSS) en población infantil chilena (10 – 12 años). Universitas Psychologica, 14(1), 29–42.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Baker J.A. & Maupin, A.N. (2009). School satisfaction and children’s positive school adjustment. En R. Gilman, E.S. Huebner & M.J. Furlong (Eds.), Handbook of positive psychology in the schools (pp. 189–196). New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  3. Bauman, S., Cross, D., & Walker, J. L. (Eds.). (2013). Principles of cyberbullying research: Definitions, measures and methodology. New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  4. Ben-Arieh, A. (2008). The child indicators movement: Past, present, and future. Child Indicators Research, 1(1), 3–16.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Berger, C., & Caravita, S. C. S. (2016). Why do early adolescents bully? Exploring the influence of prestige norms on social and psychological motives to bully. Journal of Adolescence, 46, 45–56.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Berger, C., Rodkin, P. C. & Karimpour, R. (2008). Bullies and victims at school: Perspectives and strategies for primary prevention. En T. Miller (Ed.), School violence and primary prevention (pp. 295–322). New York: Springer-Verlag.Google Scholar
  7. Bilić, V., Flander, G., & Rafajac, B. (2014). Life satisfaction and school performance of children exposed to classic and cyber peer bullying. Collegium Antropologicum, 38(1), 21–29.Google Scholar
  8. Bond, L., Carlin, J. B., Thomas, L., Rubin, K., & Patton, G. (2001). Does bullying cause emotional problems? A prospective study of young teenagers. BMJ (Clinical Research Ed.), 32, 480–484.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Bowes, L., Arseneault, L., Maughan, B., Taylor, A., Caspi, A., & Moffitt, T. E. (2009). School, neighborhood, and family factors are associated with children’s bullying involvement: A nationally representative longitudinal study. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 48(5), 545–553.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Buelga, S., Musitu, G., Murgui, S., & Pons, J. (2008). Reputation and aggressive behavior in adolescence. The Spanish Journal of Psychology, 11, 192–200.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Casas, F. (2010). El bienestar personal: Su investigación en la infancia y la adolescencia. Encuentros en Psicología Social, 5(1), 85–101.Google Scholar
  12. Castellá, J., Saforcada, E., Tonon, G., Rodríguez de la Vega, L., Mozobancyk, S., & Bedin, L. M. (2012). Bienestar Subjetivo de los Adolescentes: Un studio comparativo entre Argentiba y Brasil. Psychological Intervention, 21(3), 273–280.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Chang, F. C., Lee, C. M., Chiu, C. H., Hsi, W. Y., Huang, T. F., & Pan, Y. C. (2013). Relationships Among Cyberbullying, School Bullying, and Mental Health in Taiwanese Adolescents. Journal of School Health, 83(6), 454-462.Google Scholar
  14. Chester, K. L., Callaghan, M., Cosma, A., Donnelly, P., Craig, W., Walsh, S., & Molcho, M. (2015). Cross-national time trends in bullying victimization in 33 countries among children aged 11, 13 and 15 from 2002 to 2010. The European Journal of Public Health, 25(2), 61–64.  https://doi.org/10.1093/eurpub/ckv029 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Chile, Ministerio del Interior. (2016). Encuesta Nacional de Violencia en el Ámbito Escolar (ENVAE) 2014. Santiago: Autor. Retrieved from http://www.seguridadpublica.gov.cl/media/2016/11/Presentaci%C3%B3n-ENVAE.pdf
  16. Chile, Ministerio del Interior & Adimark. (2009). III Encuesta Nacional de Violencia en el Ámbito Escolar 2009. Santiago: Autores. Retrieved from http://www.seguridadpublica.gov.cl/filesapp/presentacion_violencia_escolar_2009_web.pdf
  17. Cicognani, E., Albanesi, C., & Zani, B. (2008). The impact of residential context on adolescents' subjective well-being. Journal of Community and Applied Social Psychology, 18(6), 558–575.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Cicognani, E., Mazzoni, D., Albanesi, C., & Zani, B. (2014). Sense of community and empowerment among young people: Understanding pathways from civic participation to social well-being. Voluntas: International Journal of Voluntary and Nonprofit Organizations, 26(1), 24–44.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Cohen, S., Gottlieb, B. H., & Underwood, L. G. (2000). Social relationships and health. En S. Cohen, L. G. Underwood & B. H. Gottlieb (Eds.), Social support measurement and intervention: A guide for health and social scientists (pp. 3–25). Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  20. Craig, W., Harel-Fisch, Y., Fogel-Grinvald, H., Dostaler, S., Hetland, J., Simons-Morton, B., et al. (2009). A cross-national profile of bullying and victimization among adolescents in 40 countries. International Journal of Public Health, 54(Suppl 2), 216–224.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Davidson, W. B., & Cotter, P. R. (1991). The relationship between sense of community and subjective well-being: A first look. Journal of Community Psychology, 19(3), 246–253.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Delgado, A. O., Suárez, L. A., Campos, R. M. E., & García, D. M. P. (2012). Activos del Barrio y Ajuste Adolescente. Psychosocial Intervention, 21(1), 17–27.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Dex, S., & Hollingworth, K. (2012). Children’s and young people’s voices on their wellbeing. Retrieved from http://webarchive.nationalarchives.gov.uk/20130401151715/https://www.education. gov.uk/publications/eOrderingDownload/Children’s%20voices%20on%20wellbeing.pdf.
  24. Diener, E., Suh, E. M., Lucas, R. E., & Smith, H. L. (1999). Subjective well-being: Three decades of progress. Psychological Bulletin, 125(2), 276–302.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Elgar, F. J., Pickett, K. E., Pickett, W., Craig, W., Molcho, M., Hurrelmann, K., & Lenzi, M. (2013). School bullying, homicide and income inequality: A cross-national pooled time series analysis. International Journal of Public Health, 58(2), 237–245.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Elvas, S., & Moniz, M. J. V. (2010). Sentimento de comunidade, qualidade e satisfação de vida. Análise Psicológica, 28(3), 451–464.Google Scholar
  27. Espelage, D. L. (2014). Ecological theory: Preventing youth bullying, aggression, and victimization. Theory Into Practice, 53(4), 257–264.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Espelage, D. L., Bosworth, K., & Simon, T. R. (2000). Examining the social context of bullying behaviors in early adolescence. Journal of Counseling and Development, 78(3), 326–333.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Espelage, D. L., & Holt, M. K. (2001). Bullying and victimization during early adolescence: Peer influences and psychosocial correlates. Journal of Emotional Abuse, 2, 123–142.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Espelage, D. L., Holt, M. K., & Henkel, R. R. (2003). Examination of peer-group contextual effects on aggression during early adolescence. Child Development, 74(1), 205–220.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Farrell, S. J., Aubry, T., & Coulombe, D. (2004). Neighborhoods and neighbors: Do they contribute to personal well-being? Journal of Community Psychology, 32, 9–25.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Fattore, T., Mason, J., & Watson, E. (2012). Locating the child centrally as subject in research: Towards a child interpretation of well-being. Child Indicators Research, 5(3), 423–435.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Felix, E. D., Furlong, M. J., & Austin, G. (2009). A cluster analytic investigation of school violence victimization among diverse students. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 24(10), 1673–1695.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Flannery, D. J., Wester, K. L., & Singer, M. I. (2004). Impact of exposure to violence in school on child and adolescent mental health and behavior. Journal of Community Psychology, 32(5), 559–573.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Flaspohler, P. D., Elfstrom, J. L., Vanderzee, K. L., Sink, H. E., & Birchmeier, Z. (2009). Stand by me: The effects of peer and teacher support in mitigating the impact of bullying on quality life. Psychology in the Schools, 46(1), 636–649.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Funk, B. A., Huebner, E. S., & Valois, R. F. (2006). Reliability and validity of a brief life satisfaction scale with a high school sample. Journal of Happiness Studies, 7(1), 41–54.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10902-005-0869-7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. García, F. J., Marande, G., Schneider, B. H., & Blanchard, C. (2014). Effects of school on the well-being of children and adolescents. In A. Ben-Arieh, F. Casas, I. Frønes, & J. E. Korbin (Eds.), Handbook of Child Well-Being SE – 43 (pp. 1251–1305). Netherlands: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Gilman, R., & Huebner, E. S. (2003). A review of life satisfaction research with children and adolescents. School Psychology Quarterly, 18(2), 192–205.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Gilman, R., & Huebner, E. S. (2006). Characteristics of adolescents who report very high life satisfaction. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 35(3), 293–301.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Goldweber, A., Waasdorp, T. E., & Bradshaw, C. P. (2013). Examining the link between forms of bullying behaviors and perceptions of safety and belonging among secondary school students. Journal of School Psychology, 51(4), 469–485.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Gracia, E., & Herrero, J. (2004). Personal and situational determinants of relationship-specific perceptions of social support. Social Behavior and Personality, 32, 459–476.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. van Ham, M., Manley, D., Bailey, N., Simpson, L., & Maclennan, D. (2012). Neighbourhood effects research: New perspectives. In Neighbourhood effects research: New perspectives (pp. 1–21). Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands.Google Scholar
  43. Harpham, T., Grant, E., & Rodríguez, C. (2004). Mental health and social capital in Cali, Colombia. Social Science & Medicine, 58, 2267–2277.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Herrero, J., & Gracia, E. (2007). Measuring perceived community support: Factorial structure, longitudinal invariance, and predictive validity of the PCSQ (perceived community support questionnaire). Journal of Community Psychology, 35(2), 197–217.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Herrero, J., Meneses, J., Valiente, L., & Rodríguez, F. (2004). Participación Social en Contextos Virtuales. Psicothema, 3, 456–460.Google Scholar
  46. Hinduja, S., & Patchin, J. W. (2010). Bullying, cyberbullying, and suicide. Archives of Suicide Research : Official Journal of the International Academy for Suicide Research, 14(3), 206–221.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Homel, R., & Burns, A. (1987). Is this a good place to grow up in? Neighbourhood quality and children’s evaluations. Landscape and Urban Planning, 14(1), 101–116.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Huebner, E. S. (2004). Research on assessment of life satisfaction of children and adolescents. Social Indicators Research, 66(1), 3–33.Google Scholar
  49. Huebner, E. S., Hills, K. J., Jiang, X., Long, R. F., Kelly, R., & Lyons, M. D. (2014). Schooling and children’s subjective well-being. In A. Ben-Arieh, F. Casas, I. Frønes, & J. E. Korbin (Eds.), Handbook of child well-being SE – 26 (pp. 797–819). Netherlands: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Jiménez, T. I., Musitu, G., Ramos, M. J., & Murgui, S. (2009). Community involvement and victimization at school: An analysis through family, personal and social adjustment. Journal of Community Psychology, 37(8), 959–974.  https://doi.org/10.1002/jcop.20342.
  51. Juvonen, J., & Graham, S. (2014). Bullying in schools: The power of bullies and the plight of victims. Annual Review of Psychology, 65, 159–185.  https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev-psych-010213-115030.
  52. Kerr, J., Valois, R., Huebner, E. S., & Drane, J. W. (2011). Life satisfaction and peer victimization among USA public high school adolescents. Child Indicators Research, 4, 127–144.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Kowalski, R. M., Giumetti, G. W., Schroeder, A. N., & Lattanner, M. R. (2014). Bullying in the digital age: A critical review and meta-analysis of cyberbullying research among youth. Psychological Bulletin, 140(4), 1073–1137.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Kowalski, R. M., Limber, S. E., & Agatston, P. W. (2012). Cyberbullying: Bullying in the digital age, 2nd end. Malden: Wiley-Blackwell.Google Scholar
  55. Lau, A. L. D., Cummins, R. A., & McPherson, W. (2005). An investigation into the crosscultural equivalence of the personal wellbeing index. Social Indicators Research, 72(3), 403–432.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Liem, J. H., Lustig, K., & Dillon, C. (2010). Depressive symptoms and life satisfaction among emerging adults: A comparison of high school dropouts and graduates. Journal of Adult Development, 17, 33–43.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Ma, C., & Huebner, S. (2008). Attachment relationships and adolescents’ life satisfaction: Some relationships matter more to girls than boys. Psychology in the Schools, 45(2), 177–190.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Moore, P. M., Huebner, E. S., & Hills, K. J. (2011). Electronic bullying and victimization and life satisfaction in middle school students. Social Indicators Research, 107(3), 429–447.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Navarro, R., Ruiz-Oliva, R., Larrañaga, E., & Yubero, S. (2015). The impact of cyberbullying and social bullying on optimism, global and school-related happiness and life satisfaction among 10-12-year-old schoolchildren. Applied Research in Quality of Life, 10(1), 15–36.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Olweus, D., & Breivik, K. (2014). Pligh of victims of school bullying: The opposite of Well_Being. In A. Ben-Arieh, F. Casas, I. Frønes, & J. E. Korbin (Eds.), Handbook of child well-being SE – 90 (pp. 2593–2616). Netherlands: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Ortega, R., Elipe, P., Mora-Merchán, J. A., Genta, M. L., Brighi, A., Guarini, A., Smith, P. K., Thompson, F., & Tippett, N. (2012). The emotional impact of bullying and cyberbullying on victims: A European cross-National Study. Aggressive Behavior, 38(5), 342–356.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Park, N., & Huebner, E. S. (2005). A cross-cultural study of the levels and correlates of life satisfaction among adolescents. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 36(4), 444–456.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Patchin, J. W., & Hinduja, S. (2012). Cyberbullying: An update and synthesis of the research. In J. Patchin & S. Hinduja (Eds.), Cyberbullying prevention and response: Expert perspectives (pp. 13–35). New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  64. Pavot, W., & Diener, E. (2004). The subjective evaluation of well-being in adulthood: Findings and implications. Ageing International, 29(2), 113–135.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Pretty, G. M., Conroy, C., Dugay, J., Fowler, K., & Williams, D. (1996). Sense of community and its relevance to adolescents of all ages. Journal of Community and Applied Social Psychology, 24(4), 365–379.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Proctor, C. L., Linley, P. A., & Maltby, J. (2009). Youth life satisfaction: A review of the literature. Journal of Happiness Studies, 10(5), 583–630.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Rodrigues, A., Schütz, F., Sarriera, J., Bedin, L., Strelhow, M., & Calza, T. (Septiembre 2014). Senso de Comunidade como preditor do bem-estar subjetivo infantile. 5° Conferencia Internacional de Psicología Comunitaria. Fortaleza - Brasil.Google Scholar
  68. Rogers, M. (2012). “They are there for you”: The importance of Neighbourhood friends to Children’s well- being. Child Indicators Research, 5(3), 483–502.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Ryan, R. M., & Deci, E. L. (2001). On happiness and human potentials: A review of research on hedonic and eudaimonic well-being. Annual Review of Psychology, 52(1), 141–166.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Sarriera, J. C., & Bedin, L. (2015). Towards a socio-community model: A well-being approach. Universitas Psychologica, 14(4), 15–25.Google Scholar
  71. Seligson, J. L., Huebner, E. S., & Valois, R. F. (2003). Preliminary validation of the brief multidimensional students’ life satisfaction scale (BMSLSS). Social Indicators Research, 61(2), 121–145.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Seligson, J. L., Huebner, E. S., & Valois, R. F. (2005). An investigation of a brief life satisfaction scale with elementary school children. Social Indicators Research, 73(3), 355–374.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11205-004-2011-3.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Sirgy, J. M., & Cornwell, T. (2002). How neighborhood feature affect quality of life. Social Indicators Research, 59(1), 79–114.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Siyez, D. M., & Kaya, A. (2007). Validity and reliability of the brief multidimensional students’ life satisfaction scale with Turkish children. Journal of Psychoeducational Assessment, 26(2), 139–147.  https://doi.org/10.1177/0734282907307802.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Smith, P. K., & Brain, P. (2000). Bullying in schools: Lessons from two decades of research. Aggressive Behavior, 26(1), 1–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Smith, P. K., Mahdavi, J., Carvalho, M., Fisher, S., Russell, S., & Tippett, N. (2008). Cyberbullying: Its nature and impact in secondary school pupils. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines, 49(4), 376–385.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Spears, B., Slee, P., Owens, L., & Johnson, B. (2009). Behind the scenes and screens. Zeitschrift Für Psychologie/Journal of Psychology, 217(4), 189–196.  https://doi.org/10.1027/0044-3409.217.4.189.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Swearer, S. M., & Hymel, S. (2015). Understanding the psychology of bullying: Moving toward a social-ecological diathesis–stress model. American Psychologist, 70(4), 344–353.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Tabachnick, B. G., & Fidell, L. S. (2007). Using multivariate statistics (5th ed.). New York: Pearson.Google Scholar
  80. Tian, L., Zhang, J., & Huebner, E. S. (2015). Preliminary validation of the brief multidimensional students’ life satisfaction scale (BMSLSS) among Chinese elementary school students. Child Indicators Research, 8, 907–923.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s12187-014-9295-x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Tomyn, A. J., & Cummins, R. A. (2011). The subjective wellbeing of high-school students: Validating the personal wellbeing index-school children. Social Indicators Research, 101(3), 405–418.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Ttofi, M. M., Farrington, D. P., Lösel, F., & Loeber, R. (2011). Do the victims of school bullies tend to become depressed later in life? A systematic review and meta-analysis of longitudinal studies. Journal of Aggression, Conflict and Peace Research, 3(2), 63–73.  https://doi.org/10.1108/17596591111132873.
  83. Varela, J., Zimmerman, M., Ryan, A., Stoddard, S., Heinze, J., & Alfaro, J. (2017). Life satisfaction, school satisfaction, and school violence: A mediation analysis for Chilean adolescent victims and perpetrators. Child Indicators Research., 11, 487–505.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s12187-016-9442-7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Webb, D. (2009). Subjective wellbeing on the Tibetan plateau: An exploratory investigation. Journal of Happiness Studies, 10, 753–768.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Wentzel, K. R., Barry, C. M., & Caldwell, K. A. (2004). Friendships in middle school: Influences on motivation and school adjustment. Journal of Educational Psychology, 96(2), 195–203.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Ybarra, M. L., Espelage, D. L., & Mitchell, K. J. (2007). The co-occurrence of internet harassment and unwanted sexual solicitation victimization and perpetration: Associations with psychosocial indicators. Journal of Adolescent Health, 41(6), S31–S41.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Ybarra, M. L., & Mitchell, K. J. (2004). Online aggressor/targets, aggressors, and targets: A comparison of associated youth characteristics. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 45(7), 1308–1316.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Yiengprugsawan, V., Seubsman, S., Khamman, S., & Lim, L. L. (2010). Personal wellbeing index in a National Cohort of 87,134 Thai adults. Social Indicators Research, 98, 201–215.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V., part of Springer Nature and The International Society for Quality-of-Life Studies (ISQOLS) 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jorge J. Varela
    • 1
  • Javier Guzmán
    • 1
  • Jaime Alfaro
    • 1
  • Fernando Reyes
    • 1
  1. 1.Facultad de PsicologíaUniversidad del DesarolloSantiagoChile

Personalised recommendations