Applied Research in Quality of Life

, Volume 13, Issue 4, pp 927–945 | Cite as

Individual and Contextual Factors of Happiness and Life Satisfaction in a Low Middle Income Country

  • Sujarwoto SujarwotoEmail author
  • Gindo Tampubolon
  • Adi Cilik Pierewan


Understanding individual and contextual factors of happiness and life satisfaction in a low- and middle-income country setting are important in the study of subjective well-being. This study aims to examine individual and contextual factors of happiness and life satisfaction in one of the happiest countries in the world: Indonesia. Data comes from the Indonesian Family Life Survey 2014 (N individual = 31,403; N household = 15,160; N district = 297). Results from a three-level ordered logit model show that factors of happiness and life satisfaction are beyond individual factors. Happiness and life satisfaction are also strongly associated with factors within an individual’s household and at the district government level. Individuals living in households with better economic welfare are happier and more satisfy. Poor health and unemployment have a detrimental effect on happiness and life satisfaction. Individuals living in districts whose governments’ better deliver public services are happier and more satisfy. In contrast, those living in areas with conflict and violence is less happy and satisfy. Individual religiosity and community social capital in the form of indigenous tradition benefit individual happiness and life satisfaction.


Happiness Life satisfaction Three-level ordered logit model Indonesia 


Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

The authors whose names are listed immediately below certify that they have NO affiliations with or involvement in any organization or entity with any financial interest (such as honoraria; educational grants; participation in speakers’ bureaus; membership, employment, consultancies, stock ownership, or other equity interest; and expert testimony or patent-licensing arrangements), or non-financial interest (such as personal or professional relationships, affiliations, knowledge or beliefs) in the subject matter or materials discussed in this manuscript.

Author names: Sujarwoto PhD, Adi Pierewan PhD and Gindo Tampubolon PhD.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. and The International Society for Quality-of-Life Studies (ISQOLS) 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Sujarwoto Sujarwoto
    • 1
    Email author
  • Gindo Tampubolon
    • 2
  • Adi Cilik Pierewan
    • 3
  1. 1.Universitas BrawijayaMalangIndonesia
  2. 2.University of ManchesterManchesterUK
  3. 3.Universitas Negeri YogayakartaYogyakartaIndonesia

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