Applied Research in Quality of Life

, Volume 2, Issue 2, pp 83–94 | Cite as

Validation of a Portuguese Version of the Students’ Life Satisfaction Scale

  • Susana C. MarquesEmail author
  • J. L. Pais-Ribeiro
  • Shane J. Lopez


The paper describes the development of the Portuguese version of the Students’ Life Satisfaction Scale and the examination of its psychometric properties. A sample of 367 Portuguese students completed the Students’ Life Satisfaction Scale (SLSS; Huebner in Sch Psychol Int 12:231–240, 1991a), Children’s Hope Scale (CHS; Synder in J Pediatr Psychol 22:399–421, 1997), Global Self-Worth Sub-scale (Harter, S. (1985). Manual for the self-perception profile for children. Denver: University of Denver) and Mental Health Inventory-5 (MHI-5; Berwick et al. in Medical Care 29:169–176, 1991). The first step includes translation, back-translation, inspection for lexical equivalence and content validity, and cognitive debriefing. Then we considered reliability, factor structure, and criterion-related validity. The validation process of the Portuguese SLSS version shows psychometric properties similar to the English language SLSS, suggesting that it measures the same construct in the same way. Implications of these findings are discussed.


Satisfaction with life Students Validation Psychometric properties 



This paper was supported by a FCT grant SFRH/BD/28423/2006.


  1. Adelman, H. S., Taylor, L., & Nelson, P. (1989). Minors’ dissatisfaction with their life circumstances. Child Psychiatry and Human Development, 20, 135–147.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Alves-Martins, M., Peixoto, F., Mata, L., & Monteiro, V. (1995). Escala de auto-conceito para criancas e pre-adolescentes. (Self-perception profile for children of Susan Harter). In L. S. Almeida, M. R. Simões, & M. M. Gonçalves (Eds.), Provas Psicológicas em Portugal (pp. 79–89). Braga: APPORT.Google Scholar
  3. American Psychological Association. (1993). Guidelines for providers of psychological services to ethnic, linguistic, and culturally diverse populations. American Psychologist, 48, 45–48.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Andrews, F. M., & Withey, S. B. (1976). Social indicators of well-being: American’s perceptions of life quality. New York: Plenum.Google Scholar
  5. Berwick, D. M., Murphy, J. M., Goldman, P. A., Ware, J. E., Barsky, A. J., & Weinstein, M. C. (1991). Performance of a five-item mental health screening test. Medical Care, 29, 169–176.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Casas, F., Alsinet, F., Rossich, M., Huebner, E. S., & Laughlin, J. (2001). Cross-cultural investigation of the Multidimensional Students’ Life Satisfaction Scale with Spanish adolescents. In F. Casas & C. Saurina (Eds.), Proceedings of the III Conference of International Quality of Life Studies (pp. 359–366). Girona, Spain: University of Girona Press.Google Scholar
  7. Chang, E. C. (2003). A critical appraisal and extension of hope theory in middle-aged men and women: Is it important to distinguish agency and pathway components? Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, 22, 121–143.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Cummins, R. A. (1997). Comprehensive Quality of Life Scaleschool version (Grades 7–12) (5th edn.). Melbourne, Australia: School of Psychology, Dcakin University.Google Scholar
  9. Dew, T., & Huebner, E. S. (1994). Adolescents’ perceived quality of life: An exploratory investigation. Journal of School Psychology, 33, 185–199.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Diener, E. (2000). Subjective well-being: The science of happiness and a proposal for a national index. American Psychologist, 55, 34–43.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Diener, E., & Diener, C. (1996). Most people are happy. Psychologie Scolaire, 7, 181–185.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Diener, E., Emmons, R. A., Larsen, R. J., & Griffin, S. (1985). The Satisfaction with Life Scale. Journal of Personality Assessment, 49, 71–76.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Diener, E., Suh, E. M., Lucas, R. E., & Smith, H. L. (1999). Subjective well-being: Three decades of progress. Psychological Bulletin, 125, 276–302.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Fogle, L. M., Huebner, E. S., & Laughlin, J. E. (2002). The relationship between temperament and life satisfaction in adolescence: Cognitive and behavioural mediation models. J Happiness Studies, 3, 373–392.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Frisch, M. B. (2000). Improving mental and physical health care through quality of life therapy and assessment. In E. Diener & D. R. Rahtz (Eds.), Advances in quality of life theory and research (pp. 207–241). Great Britain: Kluwer Academic Publishers.Google Scholar
  16. Gilman, R., Dooley, J., & Florell, D. (2006). Relative levels of hope and their relationship with academic and psychological indicators among adolescents. Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, 23, 166–178.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Gilman, R., & Huebner, E. S. (1997). Children’s reports of their life satisfaction. School Psychology International, 18, 229–243.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Greenspoon, P. J., & Saklofske, D. H. (1997). Validity and reliability of the Multidimensional Students’ Life Satisfaction Scale with Canadian children. Journal of Psychoeducational Assessment, 15, 138–155.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Harter, S. (1985). Manual for the self-perception profile for children. Denver: University of Denver.Google Scholar
  20. Huebner, E. S. (1991a). Initial development of the Student’ Life Satisfaction Scale. School Psychology International, 12, 231–240.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Huebner, E. S. (1991b). Correlates of life satisfaction in children. School Psychology Quarterly, 6, 103–111.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Huebner, E. S. (1994). Preliminary development and validation of a multidimensional life satisfaction scale for children. Psychological Assessment, 6, 149–158.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Huebner, E. S. (1995). The Students’ Life Satisfaction Scale: An assessment of psychometric properties with black and white elementary school students. Social Indicators Research, 34, 315–323.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Huebner, E. S. (2004). Research on assessment of life satisfaction of children and adolescents. Social Indicators Research, 66, 3–33.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Huebner, E. S., & Alderman, G. L. (1993). Convergent and discriminant validation of a children’s life satisfaction scale: It’s relationship to self and teacher-reported psychological problems and school functioning. Social Indicators Research, 30, 71–82.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Huebner, E. S., Brantley, A., Nagle, R., & Valois, R. F. (2002). Correspondence between parent and adolescent ratings of life satisfaction for adolescents with and without mild mental disabilities. Journal of Psychoeducational Assessment, 20, 20–29.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Huebner, E. S., & Dew, T. (1993). An evaluation of racial bias in a life satisfaction scale. Psychology in the Schools, 30, 305–309.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Huebner, E. S., Drane, W., & Valois, R. F. (2000a). Levels and demographic correlates of adolescent life satisfaction reports. School Psychology International, 21, 281–292.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Huebner, E. S., Funk, B. A., & Gilman, R. (2000b). Cross-sectional and longitudinal psychosocial correlates of adolescent life satisfaction reports. Canadian Journal of School Psychology, 16, 53–64.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Huebner, E. S., Suldo, S. M., Smith, L. C., & McKnight, C. G. (2004). Life satisfaction in children and youth: Empirical foundations and implications for school psychologists. School Psychology International, 12, 231–240.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Huebner, E. S., Suldo, S. M., & Valois, R. F. (2003). Psychometric properties of two brief measures of children’s life satisfaction: The Students’ Life Satisfaction Scale and the Brief Multidimensional Students’ Life Satisfaction Scale. Paper presented at the Indicators of Positive Development Conference, Washington, DC.Google Scholar
  32. Leung, J. P., & Zhang, L. (2000). Modelling life satisfaction of Chinese adolescents in Hong Kong. International Journal of Behavioural Development, 24, 99–104.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Marques, S. C., & Ribeiro, J. P. (2006a). Contribution to the psychometric and structural study of the brief life satisfaction scale for students: A preliminary study. In C. Machado, L. Almeida, A. Guisande, M. Gonçalves, & V. Ramalho (Eds.), Proceedings of the XI International Conference of Psychological Evaluation: Shapes and Contexts (pp. 537–543). Braga, Portugal: Psiquilibrios Edittions.Google Scholar
  34. Marques, S. C., & Ribeiro, J. P. (2006b). Contribution to the psychometric and structural study of the children’s hope scale: A preliminary study. In C. Machado, L. Almeida, A. Guisande, M. Gonçalves, & V. Ramalho (Eds.), Proceedings of the XI International Conference of Psychological Evaluation: Shapes and Contexts. (pp. 301–307). Braga, Portugal: Psiquilibrios Edittions.Google Scholar
  35. Marques, S. C., Pais-Ribeiro, J. L., & Lopez, S. J. (2007). Validation of a Portuguese Version of the Children Hope Scale. SubmittedGoogle Scholar
  36. McKnight, C. G., Huebner, E. S., & Suldo, S. M. (2002). Relationships among stressful life events, temperament, problem behaviour, and global life satisfaction in adolescents. Psychology in the Schools, 39, 677–687.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Neto, F. (1993). Satisfaction with life scale: Psychometric properties in an adolescent sample. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 22, 125–134.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Neto, F. (2001). Satisfaction with life among adolescents from immigrant families in Portugal. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 30, 53–67.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Pais-Ribeiro, J. L. (2001). Mental Health Inventory: A study of adaptation to Portuguese population. Psicologia, Saúde & Doenças, 2, 77–99.Google Scholar
  40. Park, N. (2000). Life satisfaction among children and adolescents: Cross-cultural and cross-developmental comparisons. Doctoral dissertation, University of South Carolina.Google Scholar
  41. Pavot, W., Diener, E., Colvin, C., & Sandvik, E. (1991). Further validation of the Satisfaction with Life Scale: Evidence for the Cross-method convergence of well-being measures. Journal of Personality Assessment, 57, 149–161.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Piers, E. (1984). Piers–Harris Children’s Self-Concept Scale. Los Angeles, CA: Western Psychological Services.Google Scholar
  43. Raphael, D., Rukholm, E., Brown, I., Hill-Bailey, P., & Donato, E. (1996). The Quality of Life Profile—adolescent version: Background, description, and initial validation. Journal of Adolescent Health, 19, 366–375.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Seligson, J. L., Huebner, E. S., & Valois, R. F. (2003). Preliminary validation of the Brief Multidimensional Student’s Life Satisfaction Scale (BMSLSS). Social Indicators Research, 61, 121–145.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Snyder, C. R., Hoza, B., Pelham, W. E., Rapoff, M., Ware, L., Danovsky, M., et al. (1997). The development and validation of the Children’s Hope Scale. Journal of Pediatric Psychology, 22, 399–421.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Snyder, C. R., Lopez, S. J., Shorey, H. S., Rand, K. L., & Feldman, D. B. (2003). Hope theory, measurements, and applications to school psychology. School Psychology Quarterly, 18, 122–139.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Stewart, A. L., Hays, R. D., & Ware, J. E. (1988). The MOS Short-Form General Health Survey: Reliability and validity in a patient population. Medical Care, 26, 724–735.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Suldo, S. M., & Huebner, E. S. (2004a). Does life satisfaction moderate the effects of stressful life events on psychopathological behaviour in adolescence? School Psychology Quarterly, 19, 93–105.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Suldo, S. M., & Huebner, E. S. (2004b). The role of life satisfaction in the relationship between authoritative parenting dimension and adolescent problem behavior. Social Indicators Research, 66, 165–195.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Terry, T., & Huebner, E. S. (1995). The relationship between self-concept and life satisfaction in children. Social Indicators Research, 35, 39–52.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Valle, M. F., Huebner, E. S., & Suldo, S. M. (2004). Further evaluation of the Children’s Hope Scale. Journal of Psychoeducational Assessment, 22, 320–337.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Valois, R. E., Zullig, K. J., Huebner, E. S., & Drane, J. W. (2001). Relationship between life satisfaction and violent behaviours among adolescents. American Journal of Health Behavior, 25, 353–366.Google Scholar
  53. Veit, C. T., & Ware, J. E., Jr. (1983). The structure of psychological distress and well-being in general populations. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 51, 730–742.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Ware, J. E., Jr, Gandek, B., & IQOLA project group (1994). The SF-36 health survey: Development and use in mental health research and the IQOLA project. International Journal of Mental Health, 23, 49–73.Google Scholar
  55. Ware, J. E., Jr., & Sherbourne, C. D. (1992). The MOS 36-itemshort-form health survey (SF-36): I. Conceptual framework and item selection. Medical Care, 30, 473–481.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Ware, J. E., Jr., Snow, K., Kosinski, M., & Gandek, B. (1993). SF-36 Health Survey: Manual and interpretation guide. Boston, MA: Health Institute.Google Scholar
  57. Windle, M., & Lerner, R. M. (1986). Reassessing the dimensions of temperamental individuality across the life span: The Revised Dimensions of Temperament Survey (DOTS-R). Journal of Adolescent Research, 1, 213–220.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Zullig, K. J., Valois, R. F., Huebner, E. S., Oeltmann, J. E., & Drane, W. J. (2001). Relationship between perceived life satisfaction and adolescent substance abuse. Journal of Adolescent Health, 29, 279–288.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science + Business Media BV/The International Society for Quality-of-Life Studies (ISQOLS) 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  • Susana C. Marques
    • 1
    Email author
  • J. L. Pais-Ribeiro
    • 1
  • Shane J. Lopez
    • 2
  1. 1.University of PortoPortoPortugal
  2. 2.University of KansasLawrenceUSA

Personalised recommendations