Journal of Neuroimmune Pharmacology

, Volume 12, Issue 4, pp 602–623 | Cite as

Dopaminergic Regulation of Innate Immunity: a Review



Dopamine (DA) is a neurotransmitter in the central nervous system as well as in peripheral tissues. Emerging evidence however points to DA also as a key transmitter between the nervous system and the immune system as well as a mediator produced and released by immune cells themselves. Dopaminergic pathways have received so far extensive attention in the adaptive branch of the immune system, where they play a role in health and disease such as multiple sclerosis, rheumatoid arthritis, cancer, and Parkinson’s disease. Comparatively little is known about DA and the innate immune response, although DA may affect innate immune system cells such as dendritic cells, macrophages, microglia, and neutrophils. The present review aims at providing a complete and exhaustive summary of currently available evidence about DA and innate immunity, and to become a reference for anyone potentially interested in the fields of immunology, neurosciences and pharmacology. A wide array of dopaminergic drugs is used in therapeutics for non-immune indications, such as Parkinson’s disease, hyperprolactinemia, shock, hypertension, with a usually favorable therapeutic index, and they might be relatively easily repurposed for immune-mediated disease, thus leading to innovative treatments at low price, with benefit for patients as well as for the healthcare systems.


Dopamine Dopaminergic receptors Innate immunity Human disease Drug repurposing 



Monica Pinoli received a PhD fellowship from the University of Insubria to develop a research program on the dopaminergic modulation of neutrophil function, being enrolled in the PhD Course in Clinical and Experimental Medicine and Medical Humanities (XXIX Cycle).

Author Contribution

All authors were involved in study conception and design, acquisition, analysis and interpretation of relevant literature. All authors were involved in drafting the article or revising it critically for important intellectual content, and all authors approved the final version to be published. All authors agree to be accountable for all aspects of the work in ensuring that questions related to the accuracy or integrity of any part of the work are appropriately investigated and resolved, and declare to have confidence in the integrity of the contributions of their co-authors.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

The authors declare that they have no competing financial interests.


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© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Center of Research in Medical PharmacologyUniversity of InsubriaVareseItaly

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