Prevalence, Predictors, and Diagnostic Dilemmas: State of Bipolar Disorder in Post-Secondary Students in WHO EMRO
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Our review examines the rates, risks, and diagnostic challenges of bipolar disorder among college and university youth in WHO Eastern Mediterranean Region. WHO reports 75% of people living in the developing world with a mental illness receive no treatment or care. Bipolar disorder, a heritable mood condition, is often confused with major depression and schizophrenia, leading to delay in treatment. Accurate diagnosis depends on observable signs and symptoms rather than specialized blood tests or imaging. Bipolar disorder is associated with significant disability, and suicide is an extreme outcome. We apply Arksey and O’Malley’s (2005) five-stage scoping review to search the literature from WHO EMRO countries, and collate, chart, summarize, and report the findings. Our findings underscore that early screening and timely recognition—through the use of standardized screening and diagnostic instruments in national languages and improved clinical judgment—can facilitate accurate clinical diagnosis of bipolar disorder in this age group.
KeywordsBipolar Disorder WHO EMRO Diagnosis Youth Students Risk factors
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflict of Interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
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