Prevalence, Predictors, and Diagnostic Dilemmas: State of Bipolar Disorder in Post-Secondary Students in WHO EMRO

  • Attia KhanEmail author
  • Nazilla Khanlou
  • Aisha Qayyum
  • Payman Salamati
  • Zohrehsadat Naji
Original Article


Our review examines the rates, risks, and diagnostic challenges of bipolar disorder among college and university youth in WHO Eastern Mediterranean Region. WHO reports 75% of people living in the developing world with a mental illness receive no treatment or care. Bipolar disorder, a heritable mood condition, is often confused with major depression and schizophrenia, leading to delay in treatment. Accurate diagnosis depends on observable signs and symptoms rather than specialized blood tests or imaging. Bipolar disorder is associated with significant disability, and suicide is an extreme outcome. We apply Arksey and O’Malley’s (2005) five-stage scoping review to search the literature from WHO EMRO countries, and collate, chart, summarize, and report the findings. Our findings underscore that early screening and timely recognition—through the use of standardized screening and diagnostic instruments in national languages and improved clinical judgment—can facilitate accurate clinical diagnosis of bipolar disorder in this age group.


Bipolar Disorder WHO EMRO Diagnosis Youth Students Risk factors 


Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.


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Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Faculty of HealthYork UniversityTorontoCanada
  2. 2.Faculty of Basic Sciences, Fazaia Medical CollegeAir UniversityIslamabadPakistan
  3. 3.Sina Trauma and Surgery Research CenterTehran University of Medical SciencesTehranIran
  4. 4.Young Researchers and Elites Club, Science and Research BranchIslamic Azad UniversityTehranIran

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