Toward the Design and Validation of a Scale to Assess Amotivational Syndrome in Chronic Marijuana Users (ESATHC)
There is a sufficient amount of evidence of the short- and medium-term adverse effects on mental health from continued use of marijuana, such as dependence, psychotic outbreaks after intense consumption, schizophrenia in predisposed people, and alterations in working memory and concentration (Hall 2015; Volkow et al. 2014). In addition, the occurrence of an amotivational syndrome (AS) has been referenced (WHO 1997) or suggested (American Psychiatric Association 2013). Some argue for its existence (e.g., Bonnett et al. 2015; Lac and Luk 2018), whereas others deny or question the concept (e.g., Barnwell et al. 2006) due to the studies’ limitations—which include using small sample sizes, incorporating polydrugs, not ruling out a comorbid illness that could produce amotivation (e.g., depression, apathy, mental disorders, executive dysfunction), the type of consumer in terms of frequency and amount of consumption (i.e., heavy or light), not taking into account the age of onset or type of...
This work was supported by the CES University, Colombia; Funlam University, Colombia; and the University of Santiago de Compostela, Spain.
Compliance with Ethical Standards
This investigation was authorized by the Ethics Committee of the CES University. All participants signed the informed consent to take part in the study.
Conflict of Interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
- Atienza, F. L., Pons, D., Balaguer, I., & García-Merita, M. (2000). Propiedades psicométricas de la Escala de Satisfacción con la Vida en adolescentes. Psicothema, 12, 314–319.Google Scholar
- Babor, T. F., Higgins-Biddle, J. C., Saunders, J. B., & Monteiro, M. G. (2001). The alcohol use disorders identification test: guidelines for use in primary care (2nd ed.). Geneva: World Health Organization.Google Scholar
- Beck, A. T., Steer, R. A., & Brown, G. K. (2011). Manual. BDI-II. Inventario de Depresión de Beck-II. Madrid: Pearson.Google Scholar
- Bonnett, L., Borda, T., Scherbaum, N., & Specka, M. (2015). Abstinence phenomena of chronic cannabis-addicts prospectively monitored during controlled inpatient detoxification (part II): psychiatric complaints and their relation to delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinal and its metabolites in serum. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 155, 302–306.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Caeiro, L., Silva, T., Ferro, J. M., Pais-Ribeiro, J., & Figueira, M. L. (2012). Propiedades métricas da versão portuguesa da escala de avaliação de Apatia. Revista de Psicologia, Saúde & Doenças, 13, 266–282.Google Scholar
- Levy, R., & Czernecki, V. (2006). Apathy and the basal ganglia [supplemental material]. Journal of Neuroloy, 253 (Suppl. 7), 54–61.Google Scholar
- Ospina-Díaz, J. M., Manrique-Abril, F. G., & Ariza, N. E. (2012). Reliability and dimensionality of the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) in university students from Tunja (Colombia). Salud Uninorte, 28, 276–282.Google Scholar
- Ruiz-Sánchez de León, J. M., Pedrero-Pérez, E. J., Lozoya-Delgado, P., Llanero-Luque, M., Rojo-Mota, G., & Puerta-García, C. (2012). Prefrontal Symptoms Inventory for clinical evaluation of addictions in everyday life: development process and psychometric properties. Revista de Neurologia, 54, 649–663.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Sano, K., Mishima, K., Koushi, E., Orito, K., Egashira, N., Irie, K., & Fujiwara, M. (2008). Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol-induced catalepsy-like immobilization is mediated by decreased 5-HT neurotransmission in the nucleus accumbens due to the action of glutamate-containing neurons. Neuroscience, 151, 320–328.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Sanz, J., & García-Vera, M. P. (2009). The Beck Depression Inventory-second edition (BDI-II). School and Health, 21, 331–342.Google Scholar
- Tabachnick, B. G., & Fidell, L. S. (2013). Using multivariate statistics (6th ed.). New York, NY: Pearson.Google Scholar
- Volkow, N. D., Swanson, J. M., Evins, E., DeLisi, L. E., Meier, M. H., Gonzalez, R., & Baler, R. (2016). Effects of cannabis use on human behavior, including cognition, motivation, and psychosis: a review. JAMA Psychiatry, 73, 291–297.Google Scholar
- World Health Organization. (1997). Cannabis: a health perspective and research agenda. Geneva: Author.Google Scholar