Caudate Volumetric Reductions Predicted by Carbohydrate-Deficient Transferrin in Patients with Alcohol Dependence
- 57 Downloads
The caudate nucleus has shown a high relevance with substance craving and addiction in the pathophysiology of alcohol dependence. In this study, caudate volumetric deficits in patients with alcohol dependence and their associations with carbohydrate-deficient transferrin (CDT), a biomarker of chronic alcohol consumption, were evaluated in 21 patients with alcohol dependence and age- and sex-matched 21 healthy comparison subjects. Between-group difference in caudate volumes and correlations between CDT and caudate volumes in the patient group were examined after adjusting for age, sex, and intracranial volume. Volumetric analysis results show prominent abnormalities in the left caudate among patients with alcohol dependence (z = − 2.70, p = 0.007). CDT levels significantly predicted volumetric deficits in the left caudate (β = − 1.23, p = 0.003). These findings suggest that the caudate nucleus may be one of the important brain regions related to alcohol-induced chronic brain damages.
KeywordsAlcohol dependence Caudate nucleus Carbohydrate-deficient transferrin Structural magnetic resonance imaging Semi-automated segmentation Brain volume
This work was supported by the Brain Research Program through the National Research Foundation funded by the Ministry of Science, ICT and Future Planning (2015M3C7A1028376), and the Fire Fighting Safety and 119 Rescue Technology Research and Development Program funded by the Ministry of Public Safety and Security (MPSS-Fire Fighting Safety-2016-86).
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflict of Interest
All authors declare that they have no potential conflict of interest.
All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards. Informed consent was obtained from all patients for being included in the study.
- American Psychiatry Association. (2000). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders, text revision. Washington, DC: American Psychiatry Association.Google Scholar
- Anton, R. F., & Sillanaukee, P. (1996). The use of carbohydrate deficient transferrin as an indicator of alcohol consumption during treatment and follow-up. Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research, 20, 54a–56a. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1530-0277.1996.tb01746.x.
- Anton, R. F., Stout, R. L., Roberts, J. S., & Allen, J. P. (1998). The effect of drinking intensity and frequency on serum carbohydrate-deficient transferrin and γ-glutamyl transferase levels in outpatient alcoholics. Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research, 22(7), 1456–1462. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1530-0277.1998.tb03935.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Arora, A., Neema, M., Stankiewicz, J., Guss, Z. D., Guss, J. G., Prockop, L., & Bakshi, R. (2008). Neuroimaging of toxic and metabolic disorders. Seminars in Neurology, 28(4), 495–510.Google Scholar
- Babor, T. F., Higgins-Biddle, J. C., Saunders, J. B., Monteiro, M. G., & World Health Organization. (2001). AUDIT: the alcohol use disorders identification test: guidelines for use in primary care. 2nd edn. Geneva: World Health Organization.Google Scholar
- Cahalan, D., Cisin, I. H., & Crossley, H. M. (1969). American drinking practices: a national study of drinking behavior and attitudes. Monographs of the Rutgers Center of Alcohol Studies, 6, 260.Google Scholar
- Calvini, P., Rodriguez, G., Inguglia, F., Mignone, A., Guerra, U. P., & Nobili, F. (2007). The basal ganglia matching tools package for striatal uptake semi-quantification: description and validation. European Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, 34(8), 1240–1253.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Cortese, B. M., Moore, G. J., Bailey, B. A., Jacobson, S. W., Delaney-Black, V., & Hannigan, J. H. (2006). Magnetic resonance and spectroscopic imaging in prenatal alcohol-exposed children: preliminary findings in the caudate nucleus. Neurotoxicology and Teratology, 28(5), 597–606.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Falk, D. E., Yi, H., & Hiller-Sturmhofel, S. (2006). An epidemiologic analysis of co-occurring alcohol and tobacco use and disorders. Alcohol Research & Health, 29(3), 162–171.Google Scholar
- John, U., Meyer, C., Rumpf, H.-J., Schumann, A., Thyrian, J. R., & Hapke, U. (2003). Strength of the relationship between tobacco smoking, nicotine dependence and the severity of alcohol dependence syndrome criteria in a population-based sample. Alcohol and Alcoholism, 38(6), 606–612.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Miller, P., Dominick, C., & Anton, R. (2005). Carbohydrate-deficient transferrin test: a tool for detecting alcohol abuse. Current Psychiatry, 4(6), 80–87.Google Scholar
- Reynaud, M., Schellenberg, F., Loisequx-Meunier, M.-N., Schwan, R., Maradeix, B., Planche, F., & Gillet, C. (2000). Objective diagnosis of alcohol abuse: compared values of carbohydrate-deficient transferrin (CDT), γ-glutamyl transferase (GGT), and mean corpuscular volume (MCV). Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research, 24(9), 1414–1419.Google Scholar
- Sobell, L. C., & Sobell, M. B. (1995). Alcohol consumption measures. Assessing Alcohol Problems: A Guide for Clinicians and Researchers, 2, 75–99.Google Scholar
- Verardi, V., & Croux, C. (2009). Robust regression in Stata. Stata Journal, 9(3), 439–453.Google Scholar
- Yersin, B., Nicolet, J., Decrey, H., Burnier, M., van Melle, G., & Pécoud, A. (1995). Screening for excessive alcohol drinking: comparative value of carbohydrate-deficient transferrin, γ-glutamyltransferase, and mean corpuscular volume. Archives of Internal Medicine, 155(17), 1907–1911.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar