Caudate Volumetric Reductions Predicted by Carbohydrate-Deficient Transferrin in Patients with Alcohol Dependence
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The caudate nucleus has shown a high relevance with substance craving and addiction in the pathophysiology of alcohol dependence. In this study, caudate volumetric deficits in patients with alcohol dependence and their associations with carbohydrate-deficient transferrin (CDT), a biomarker of chronic alcohol consumption, were evaluated in 21 patients with alcohol dependence and age- and sex-matched 21 healthy comparison subjects. Between-group difference in caudate volumes and correlations between CDT and caudate volumes in the patient group were examined after adjusting for age, sex, and intracranial volume. Volumetric analysis results show prominent abnormalities in the left caudate among patients with alcohol dependence (z = − 2.70, p = 0.007). CDT levels significantly predicted volumetric deficits in the left caudate (β = − 1.23, p = 0.003). These findings suggest that the caudate nucleus may be one of the important brain regions related to alcohol-induced chronic brain damages.
KeywordsAlcohol dependence Caudate nucleus Carbohydrate-deficient transferrin Structural magnetic resonance imaging Semi-automated segmentation Brain volume
This work was supported by the Brain Research Program through the National Research Foundation funded by the Ministry of Science, ICT and Future Planning (2015M3C7A1028376), and the Fire Fighting Safety and 119 Rescue Technology Research and Development Program funded by the Ministry of Public Safety and Security (MPSS-Fire Fighting Safety-2016-86).
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflict of Interest
All authors declare that they have no potential conflict of interest.
All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards. Informed consent was obtained from all patients for being included in the study.
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