Advertisement

Underlying Mechanisms and Trajectory of Comorbid ADHD and Eating Disorders: Proposing an Innovative Systems Framework for Informing Research

  • Jennifer Bleck
  • Rita DeBate
  • Bruce Lubotsky Levin
  • Julie Baldwin
Article
  • 348 Downloads

Abstract

ADHD and eating disorders are both significant public health issues. Emerging evidence suggests that ADHD and eating disorders may be comorbid resulting in increased severity of associated health issues. Although several hypotheses have been proposed with respect to the underlying mechanisms of the comorbidity, there is a need for a conceptual model, which presents the simultaneous investigation of the trajectory of onset and multiple hypotheses. The current paper proposes an innovative conceptual model that can be used to simultaneously explore hypothesized underlying mechanisms by triangulating current literature with aspects of the biopsychosocial model, life course approach, Risk Regulator Framework, research domain criteria matrix, and the person-environment transaction theory. Designated within the model are proposed pathways that serve to describe how various psychosocial and psychiatric risk regulators and genetic risk factors combine to influence the comorbidity across the lifespan. The proposed conceptual model can provide the foundation for further research regarding comorbid ADHD and eating disorders in addition to translation for use among other comorbid conditions.

Keywords

ADHD Binge eating Eating disorders Comorbidity Theory 

References

  1. American Psychiatric Association. (2013). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (5th ed.). Arlington: American Psychiatric Publishing.Google Scholar
  2. Ball, J., Biederman, S. W., Monuteaux, M. C., Surman, C. B., Johnson, J. L., & Zeitlin, S. (2007). Are girls with ADHD at risk for eating disorders? results from a controlled, five-year prospective study. Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics, 28(4), 302–307.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Ben-Shlomo, Y., & Kuh, D. (2002). A life course approach to chronic disease epidemiology: conceptual models, empirical challenges and interdisciplinary perspectives. International Journal of Epidemiology, 31(2), 285–293.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Biederman, J., Petty, C. R., Monuteaux, M. C., Fried, R., Byrne, D., Mirto, T., . . . Faraone, S. V. (2010). Adult Psychiatric Outcomes of Girls With Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: 11-Year Follow-Up in a Longitudinal Case–control Study. American Journal of Psychiatry, 167(4), 409–417Google Scholar
  5. Bleck, J. R., Debate, R. D., & Olivardia, R. (2014). The Co-occurrence of ADHD and Eating Disorders in a Nationally Representative Sample. Journal of Behavioral Health Services & Research, 1–15. Google Scholar
  6. Blinder, B. J., Cumella, E. J., & Sanathara, V. A. (2006). Psychiatric comorbidities of female inpatients with eating disorders. Psychosomatic Medicine, 68(3), 454–462.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Blum, K., & Noble, E. (2001). Reward deficiency syndrome (RDS): a biogenic model for the diagnosis and treatment of impulsive, addictive, and compulsive behaviors. Paper presented at the Molecular psychiatryGoogle Scholar
  8. Borrell-Carrió, F., Suchman, A. L., & Epstein, R. M. (2004). The biopsychosocial model 25 years later: principles, practice, and scientific inquiry. The Annals of Family Medicine, 2(6), 576–582.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Caspi, A., & Roberts, B. W. (1990). Personality continuity and change across the life course. Handbook of personality: Theory and research, 300–326.Google Scholar
  10. Caspi, A., & Roberts, B. W. (2001). Personality development across the life course: the argument for change and continuity. Psychological Inquiry, 12(2), 49–66.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Comings, D. E., & Blum, K. (2000). Reward deficiency syndrome: genetic aspects of behavioral disorders. Progress in Brain Research, 126, 325–341.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Cortese, S., B. D., B., & Mouren, M. C. (2007). Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and binge eating. Nutrition Reviews, 65(9), 404–411.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Cortese S, Angriman, M., Maffeis, C., Isnard, P., Konofal, E., Lecendreux, M., . . . Mouren, M.-C. (2008). Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and obesity: a systematic review of the literature. Critical reviews in food science and nutrition, 48(6), 524–537.Google Scholar
  14. Davis, C., Levitan, R. D., Smith, M., Tweed, S., & Curtis, C. (2006). Associations among overeating, overweight, and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder: a structural equation modelling approach. Eating Behaviors, 7(3), 266–274.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Elder, G. H., Johnson, M. K., & Crosnoe, R. (2003). The emergence and development of life course theory. Handbook of the Life Course, 3–19.Google Scholar
  16. Engel, G. L. (1980). The clinical application of the biopsychosocial model. The American Journal of Psychiatry, 137(5), 535–544.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Fernández-Aranda, F., Agüera, Z., Castro, R., Jiménez-Murcia, S., Ramos-Quiroga, J. A., Bosch, R., . . . Claes, L. (2013). ADHD symptomatology in eating disorders: a secondary psychopathological measure of severity? BMC psychiatry, 13(1), 166.Google Scholar
  18. Glass, T. A., & McAtee, M. J. (2006). Behavioral science at the crossroads in public health: extending horizons, envisioning the future. Social Science & Medicine, 62(7), 1650–1671.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Haines, J., & Neumark-Sztainer, D. (2006). Prevention of obesity and eating disorders: a consideration of schared risk factors. Health Education Research, 21(6), 770–782.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Hudson, J. I., Hiripi, E., Pope, H. G., Jr., & Kessler, R. C. (2007). The prevalence and correlates of eating disorders in the national comorbidity survey replication. Biological Psychiatry, 61(3), 348–358.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Insel, T. R., Cuthbert, B. N., Garvey, M. A., Heinssen, R. K., Pine, D. S., Quinn, K. J., . . . Wang, P. S. (2010). Research domain criteria (RDoC): toward a new classification framework for research on mental disorders. American Journal of Psychiatry, 167(7), 748–751.Google Scholar
  22. Kessler, R. C., Adler, L., Barkley, R., Biederman, J., Conners, C. K., Demler, O., . . . Secnik, K. (2006). The prevalence and correlates of adult ADHD in the United States: results from the National Comorbidity Survey Replication. Am J Psychiatry, 163(4), 716.Google Scholar
  23. LaHoste, G., Swanson, J., Wigal, S., Glabe, C., Wigal, T., King, N., & Kennedy, J. (1996). Dopamine D4 receptor gene polymorphism is associated with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Molecular Psychiatry, 1(2), 121–124.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Mattos, P., Saboya, E., Ayrão, V., Segenreich, D., Duchesne, M., & Coutinho, G. (2004). Comorbid eating disorders in a Brazilian attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder adult clinical sample. Revista Brasileira de Psiquiatria, 26(4), 248–250.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Mikami, A. Y., Hinshaw, S. P., Patterson, K. A., & Lee, J. C. (2008). Eating pathology among adolescent girls with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 117(1), 225–235.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  26. Morris, S. E., & Cuthbert, B. N. (2012). Research domain criteria: cognitive systems, neural circuits, and dimensions of behavior. Dialogues in Clinical Neuroscience, 14(1), 29.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  27. National Eating Disorder Association. (n.d.). Health Consequences of Eating Disorders. Retrieved on March 24, 2013 from http://www.nationaleatingdisorders.org/health-consequences-eating-disorders.
  28. National Institute of Mental Health. (2008). Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). In National Institute of Mental Health (Ed.), (Vol. no. 08–3572): National Institutes of Health.Google Scholar
  29. National Institutes of Mental Health. (n.d.). RDoC Constructs. Retrieved September 21, 2013, from http://www.nimh.nih.gov/research-priorities/rdoc/rdoc-constructs.shtml - acute_threat
  30. Nazar, B. P., Pinna, C., Coutinho, G., Segenreich, D., Duchesne, M., Appolinario, J. C., & Mattos, P. (2008). Review of literature of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder with comorbid eating disorders. Revista Brasileira de Psiquiatria, 30, 384–389.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Neumark-Sztainer. (2003). Obesity and eating disorder prevention: an integrated approach? Adolescent medicine (Philadelphia, Pa.), 14(1), 159.Google Scholar
  32. Neumark-Sztainer, D., Wall, M., Guo, J., Story, M., Haines, J., & Eisenberg, M. (2006). Obesity, disordered eating, and eating disorders in a longitudinal study of adolescents: how do dieters fare 5 years later? Journal of the American Dietetic Association, 106(4), 559.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Neumark-Sztainer, D. R., Wall, M. M., Story, M. T., Haines, J. I., Sherwood, N. E., & Berg, V. D. (2007). Shared risk and protective factors for overweight and disordered eating in adolescents. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 33(5), 359–369.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Noble, E. P. (2003). D2 dopamine receptor gene in psychiatric and neurologic disorders and its phenotypes. American Journal of Medical Genetics Part B: Neuropsychiatric Genetics, 116(1), 103–125.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Peebles, R., Hardy, K. K., Wilson, J. L., & Lock, J. D. (2010). Are diagnostic criteria for eating disorders markers of medical severity? Pediatrics, 125(5), e1193–e1201.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  36. Poston, W., Ericsson, M., Linder, J., Haddock, C., Hanis, C., Nilsson, T., . . . Foreyt, J. (1998). D4 dopamine receptor gene exon III polymorphism and obesity risk. Eating and weight disorders: EWD, 3(2), 71–77.Google Scholar
  37. Quinn, P. (2008). Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and its comorbidities in women and girls: an evolving picture. Current Psychiatry Reports, 10(5), 419–423.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. Reba-Harrelson, L., Von Holle, A., Hamer, R., Swann, R., Reyes, M., & Bulik, C. (2009). Patterns and prevalence of disordered eating and weight control behaviors in women ages 25–45. Eating and Weight Disorders: EWD, 14(4), e190.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. Smalley, S., Bailey, J., Palmer, C., Cantwell, D., McGough, J., Del'Homme, M., . . . Nelson, S. (1998). Evidence that the dopamine D4 receptor is a susceptibility gene in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Molecular psychiatry, 3(5), 427–430.Google Scholar
  40. Sobanski, E., Brüggemann, D., Alm, B., Kern, S., Deschner, M., Schubert, T., . . . Rietschel, M. (2007). Psychiatric comorbidity and functional impairment in a clinically referred sample of adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience, 257(7), 371–377Google Scholar
  41. Striegel‐Moore, R. H., & Franko, D. L. (2003). Epidemiology of binge eating disorder. International Journal of Eating Disorders, 34(S1), S19–S29.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. Swanson, J., Sunohara, G., Kennedy, J., Regino, R., Fineberg, E., Wigal, T., . . . Wigal, S. (1998). Association of the dopamine receptor D4 (DRD4) gene with a refined phenotype of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): a family-based approach. Molecular psychiatry, 3(1), 38–41.Google Scholar
  43. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. (2012). Office of Disease Prevention and Health Promotion. Healthy People 2020. Washington, DC.Google Scholar
  44. Visser, S. N., Danielson, M. L., Bitsko, R. H., Holbrook, J. R., Kogan, M. D., Ghandour, R. M., . . . Blumberg, S. J. (2014). Trends in the Parent-Report of Health Care Provider-Diagnosed and Medicated Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: United States, 2003–2011. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 53(1), 34–46. e32.Google Scholar
  45. Wade, T. D., Keski‐Rahkonen, A., & Hudson, J. I. (2011). Epidemiology of eating disorders (pp. 343–360). Third Edition: Textbook in Psychiatric Epidemiology.Google Scholar
  46. Wang, G.-J., Volkow, N. D., & Fowler, J. S. (2002). The role of dopamine in motivation for food in humans: implications for obesity. Expert Opinion on Therapeutic Targets, 6(5), 601–609.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. Wentz, E., Lacey, J., Waller, G., Råstam, M., Turk, J., & Gillberg, C. (2005). Childhood onset neuropsychiatric disorders in adult eating disorder patients. European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 14(8), 431–437.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Yates, W. R., Lund, B. C., Johnson, C., Mitchell, J., & McKee, P. (2009). Attention-deficit hyperactivity symptoms and disorder in eating disorder inpatients. International Journal of Eating Disorders, 42(4), 375–378.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jennifer Bleck
    • 1
  • Rita DeBate
    • 1
  • Bruce Lubotsky Levin
    • 2
  • Julie Baldwin
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Community and Family Health, College of Public HealthUniversity of South FloridaTampaUSA
  2. 2.Child and Family StudiesUniversity of South FloridaTampaUSA

Personalised recommendations