Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT) and Meditation Awareness Training (MAT) for the Treatment of Co-occurring Schizophrenia and Pathological Gambling: A Case Study

  • Edo Shonin
  • William Van Gordon
  • Mark D. Griffiths


There is a paucity of interventional approaches that are sensitive to the complex needs of individuals with co-occurring schizophrenia and pathological gambling. Utilizing a single-participant design, this study conducted the first clinical evaluation of a novel and integrated non-pharmacological treatment for a participant with dual-diagnosis schizophrenia and pathological gambling. The participant underwent a 20-week treatment course comprising: (i) an initial phase of second-wave cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), and (ii) a subsequent phase employing a meditation-based recovery model (involving the administering of an intervention known as Meditation Awareness Training). The primary outcome was diagnostic change (based on DSM-IV-TR criteria) for schizophrenia and pathological gambling. Secondary outcomes were: (i) psychiatric symptom severity, (ii) pathological gambling symptom severity, (iii) psychosocial functioning, and (iv) dispositional mindfulness. Findings demonstrated that the participant was successfully treated for both schizophrenia and pathological gambling. Significant improvements were also observed across all other outcome variables and positive outcomes were maintained at 3-month follow-up. An initial phase of CBT to improve social coping skills and environmental mastery, followed by a phase of meditation-based therapy to increase perceptual distance from mental urges and intrusive thoughts, may be a diagnostically-syntonic treatment for co-occurring schizophrenia and pathological gambling.


Cognitive behavioral therapy Meditation awareness training Schizophrenia Pathological gambling Mindfulness Meditation 


Conflict of Interest

The authors have no competing interests to declare.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Edo Shonin
    • 1
    • 2
  • William Van Gordon
    • 2
  • Mark D. Griffiths
    • 1
  1. 1.Division of PsychologyNottingham Trent UniversityNottinghamUK
  2. 2.Awake to Wisdom, Centre for Meditation, Mindfulness, and Psychological WellbeingNottinghamUK

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