Gambling Involvement: Considering Frequency of Play and the Moderating Effects of Gender and Age
- 513 Downloads
Research indicates that specific types of gambling, such as electronic gaming machines (e.g., Video Lottery Terminals (VLTs), slot machines, virtual gaming machines), are associated with increased odds of experiencing gambling problems. Recent findings suggest that to advance our understanding of gambling-related problems scientists need to focus less on a simple association (e.g., specific gambling type) and more on complex models that include the extent of gambling involvement. The objective of this study is to advance this area of investigation by establishing the generalizability of the involvement effect to the general population of Canada, as well as to examine two potential moderating factors: gender and age. Secondary data analysis of the nationally representative Canadian Community Health Survey (CCHS) cycle 1.2 (data collected during 2002, response rate = 77 %, n = 18,913) using logistic regression models were conducted. All types of gambling were associated with problem gambling. However, when adjusting for gambling involvement (i.e., the number of games played during the past year), these specific game relationships were either eliminated or attenuated. Significant relationships remained for instant win lottery tickets, bingo, card and/or board games, electronic gaming machines outside of casinos, electronic gaming machines inside casinos, other casino gambling, horse racing, sports lotteries, and games of skill. For many types of gambling, the nature of the relationships seemed to be a function of the frequency of engagement with specific games. Gender and age did not moderate these findings. These findings indicate that focusing on a narrow direct cause (e.g., game type) for gambling problems needs to shift towards a more complex model that also includes the level of gambling involvement.
KeywordsGambling Problem gambling Gaming Games Gambling involvement Gambling participation Video Lottery Terminals (VLTs) Electronic gaming machines Casinos Lotteries Bingo Population
Adjusted odds ratio
Canadian Community Health Survey
Canadian Problem Gambling Index
Video Lottery Terminals
This research was funded through the Health Sciences Centre Foundation (HSC Foundation). Preparation of the article was also supported by a Canadian Institutes of Health Research (CIHR) New Investigator Award and a Manitoba Health Research Council (MHRC) establishment award (Dr. Afifi).
The Division on Addictions receives support from the National Institute of Mental Health, The National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, The National Institute on Drug Abuse, The Century Council, the Massachusetts Council on Compulsive Gambling, and bwin.party digital entertainment.
Statistics Canada collected and provided the data for academic purposes, but the analyses are the sole responsibility of the authors. The opinions expressed do not represent the views of Statistics Canada.
Conflict of Interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
- Afifi, T. O., Cox, B. J., Martens, P. J., Sareen, J., & Enns, M. W. (2010). The relationship between types and frequency of gambling activities and problem gambling among women in Canada. Canadian Journal of Psychiatry, 55, 21–28.Google Scholar
- Beland, Y., Dufour, J., & Gravel, R. (2001). Sample design of the Canadian mental health and well-being survey. In (pp. 93–98). Vancouver, BC: Statistical Society of Canada.Google Scholar
- Cox, B. J., Yu, N., Afifi, T. O., & Ladouceur, R. (2005). A national survey of gambling problems in Canada. Canadian Journal of Psychiatry, 50, 213–217.Google Scholar
- Delfabbro, P., King, D., & Griffiths, M. D. (2013). From adolescent to adult gambling: an analysis of longitudinal gambling patterns in South Austrailia. Journal of Gambling Studies. doi: 10.1007/s10899-013-9384-7.
- Ferris, J., & Wynne, H. (2001a). The Canadian Problem Gambling Index: Final report. Submitted for the Canadian Centre on Substance Abuse.Google Scholar
- Ferris, J., & Wynne, H. (2001b). The Canadian Problem Gambling Index: User manual. Ottawa: Canadian Centre of Substance Abuse.Google Scholar
- Gravel, R., & Beland, Y. (2005). The Canadian Community Health Survey: mental health and well-being. Canadian Journal of Psychiatry, 50, 573–579.Google Scholar
- Kairouz, S., Nadeau, L., & Lo Siou, G. (2005). Area variations in the prevalence of substance use disorders and gambling behaviour and problems in Quebec: a multilevel analysis. Canadian Journal of Psychiatry, 50, 591–598.Google Scholar
- LaPlante, D. A., Afifi, T. O., & Shaffer, H. J. (2013). Games and gambling involvement among casino patrons. Journal of Gambling Studies, 29, 191–203. doi: 10.1007/s10899-012-9307-z.
- Marshall, K., & Wynne, H. (2003). Fighting the odds. Perspectives, 75-001-XIE, 5–13.Google Scholar
- Marshall, K., & Wynne, H. (2004). Against the odds: a profile of at-risk and problem gamblers. Canadian Social Trends, 11–008, 25–29.Google Scholar
- Shah, B. V., Barnwell, B. G., & Bieler, G. S. (2004). SUDAAN user’s manual: Release 9.0. Triangle Park: Research Triangle Institute.Google Scholar
- Statistics Canada, Health Statistics Division (2004). Canadian community health survey cycle 1.2 - mental health and well-being: User guide for the public use microdata file. Ottawa: Minister of Industry. Available at http://www23.statcan.gc.ca/imdb-bmdi/document/5015_D10_T9_V1-eng.pdf