Patterns of Alcohol and Other Drug Use Associated with Major Depression Among Gay Men Attending General Practices in Australia
- 390 Downloads
Our aim was to clarify the role of alcohol and other drug (AOD) use in major depression among gay men attending general medical practices. A secondary analysis was conducted on survey data collected from 531 gay men attending high-HIV-caseload general practices in Adelaide and Sydney, Australia. The survey contained demographic, social, behavioural and AOD variables. Participants were classified into those with (n = 130) and without major depression (n = 401) using the PHQ-9 screening tool. Although rates of drug use were very high in the sample, multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that the majority of variables independently associated with major depression were social and behavioural factors. Only one AOD variable was associated with major depression: the use of three or more drug types in the past 6 months. Attending to specific patterns of AOD use may assist in the identification of gay men most at risk of major depression.
KeywordsAlcohol and other drugs Depression Gay men General practice Social factors
Thanks to the gay men and general practitioners who participated in the study, Hannah Wilson who assisted with the statistical analysis, the study’s expert reference group and the participants of a writing workshop facilitated by Elisabeth Heseltine. The Primary Health Care Project on HIV and Depression was funded by the National Health and Medical Research Council. Funding for secondary analyses, including those reported in this paper, was provided by beyondblue: the national depression initiative. The National Centre in HIV Social Research is supported by the Australian Government Department of Health and Ageing.
Conflict of interest
- Australian Institute of Health and Welfare. (2008). 2007 National Drug Strategy Household Survey: Detailed findings (Drug Statistics Series No. 22). Canberra: Australian Institute of Health and Welfare.Google Scholar
- Jaffe, A., Shoptaw, S., Stein, J. A., Reback, C. J., & Rotheram-Fuller, E. (2007). Depression ratings, reported sexual risk behaviors, and methamphetamine use: Latent growth curve models of positive change among gay and bisexual men in an outpatient treatment program. Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology, 15(3), 301–307.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Körner, H., Newman, C., Mao, L., Kippax, S., Kidd, M.R., & Saltman, D.C. (2008). ‘It’s really a myriad of different signals, not just the textbook’: The complexities of diagnosing depression in gay men and HIV-positive men in general practice. Mental Health in Family Practice, 5, 167–175.Google Scholar
- Mao, L., Kippax, S. C., Newman, C. E., Andrews, G., Rogers, G., Saltman, D. C., et al. (2008). Rates of depression among men attending high-HIV-caseload general practices in Australia. Mental Health in Family Medicine, 5(2), 79–83.Google Scholar
- Mao, L., Newman, C. E., Kidd, M. R., Saltman, D. C., Rogers, G. D., & Kippax, S. C. (2009a). Self-reported sexual difficulties and their association with depression and other factors among gay men attending high HIV-caseload general practices in Australia. Journal of Sexual Medicine, 6(5), 1378–1385.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Mao, L., Kidd, M. R., Rogers, G., Andrews, G., Newman, C. E., Booth, A., et al. (2009b). Social factors associated with Major Depressive Disorder in homosexually active, gay men attending general practices in urban Australia. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Public Health, 33, 83–86.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- National Health and Medical Research Council. (2001). Australian alcohol guidelines: Health risks and benefits. Canberra: Commonwealth of Australia.Google Scholar
- Prachakul, W., Grant, J. S., & Keltner, N. L. (2007). Relationships among functional social support, HIV-related stigma, social problem solving, and depressive symptoms in people living with HIV: A pilot study. The Journal of the Association of Nurses in AIDS Care, 18(6), 67–76.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Saltman, D. C., Newman, C. E., Mao, L. K., Kippax, S. C., & Kidd, M. R. (2008). Experiences in managing problematic crystal methamphetamine use and associated depression in gay men and HIV positive men: in-depth interviews with general practitioners in Sydney, Australia. BMC Family Practice, 9, 45.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Waraich, P., Goldner, E. M., Somers, J. M., & Hsu, L. (2004). Prevalence and incidence studies of mood disorders: A systematic review of the literature. Canadian Journal of Psychiatry, 49(2), 124–138.Google Scholar