Psychometric Evaluation of the Life Orientation Test—Revised in Treated Opiate Dependent Individuals

  • Jameson K. Hirsch
  • Peter C. Britton
  • Kenneth R. Conner


We examined internal consistency and test-retest reliability of a measure of dispositional optimism, the Life Orientation Test — Revised, in 121 opiate-dependent patients seeking methadone treatment. Internal consistency was adequate at baseline (α = .69) and follow-up (α = .72). Low socioeconomic status and being on disability were significantly associated with reduced internal consistency; ethnic and educational differences approached significance. Test-retest reliability was good (ICC = .72), varying across gender, race, ethnicity, education, employment and income (ICC Range = .24 –.85). Criterion validity was strong; the LOT-R was significantly negatively correlated with hopelessness (r = -.65, p < .001) and depression (r = -.60, p < .001). Findings support the use of this measure of optimism and pessimism to assess positive cognitive and emotional attributes and improve treatment strategies for opiate-dependent individuals. Future research should address the measurement and significance of optimism in minority, low socioeconomic status and poorly-educated individuals.


Optimism Pessimism Opiate-dependent Psychometric properties Methadone maintenance treatment 


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jameson K. Hirsch
    • 1
    • 3
  • Peter C. Britton
    • 2
    • 3
  • Kenneth R. Conner
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of PsychologyEast Tennessee State UniversityJohnson CityUSA
  2. 2.Center of ExcellenceCanandaigua VA Medical CenterCanandaiguaUSA
  3. 3.Center for the Study and Prevention of Suicide, Department of PsychiatryUniversity of Rochester School of Medicine and DentistryRochesterUSA

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