Socio-cultural Factors Associated with the Initiation of Opium Use in Darab, Iran
- 295 Downloads
This study aimed to identify socio-cultural factors facilitating initiation of opium use among drug users in Darab, Iran. A qualitative study using in-depth interviews was conducted. The study began in June 2006 and included 76 drug users, aged 20–43, of whom 95% (72) were male, and 5% (4) were female. The five most common factors facilitating initiation of drug use were revealed to be: lack of hobbies, treatment of general medical problems, modeling, peer networks, and cultural norms. Partner pressure was a common complaint among women in this study. Cultural factors perceived to facilitate initiation of drug use revealed in this study have not been fully addressed by current prevention and rehabilitation programs. Programs can be targeted at social and family levels to alter drug use culture.
KeywordsOpium use Initiation of drug use First time drug use Culture and drug use Iran
- Adl, F. A., Sadrossdat, S. J., Biglarian, A., & Yeganeh, M. R. J. (2005). A survey effective on companion and association with bad command group and youngsters’ tendency to addiction. Social Welfare, 4, 319–334.Google Scholar
- Ahmadi, J., Fakoor, A., Pezeshkian, A., Khoshnood, R., & Malekpour, A. (2002). Current Substance Use among Psychiatric Patients. Archives of Iranian Medicine, 5, 118–121.Google Scholar
- Ahmadi, J., & Ghanizadeh, A. (1998). The motivations for opiate abuse among addicts seeking-treatment in Shiraz. http://www.sums.ac.ir/∼ahmadij/articles-en/Motivations.htm. Accessed 16 January 2008.
- Ahmadi, J., Maany, I., & Ahmadi, M. (2003). Treatment of Intravenous Buprenorphine Dependence: A Randomized Open Clinical Trial. German Journal of Psychiatry. http://www.gjpsy.uni-goettingen.de/gjp-article-ahmadi-buprenorphine.pdf. Accessed 19 January 2008.
- Bandura, A. (1973). Aggression: A social learning analysis. Englewood Cliffs: Prentice Hall.Google Scholar
- Charles, M. (2001). Drug trade in Himachal Pradesh the role of socio-economic changes. Economic and Political Weekly, 36, 2433–2439.Google Scholar
- de Kort, G., Vazirian, M., & Nassirimanesh, B. (2006). Young people and drugs—Towards a comprehensive health promotion policy—Tehran report, Asian Harm Reduction Network (AHRN) Final Report, Thailand. http://www.unodc.org/pdf/iran/publications/ahrn.pdf. Accessed 8 September 2007.
- Eron, L. D., Huesmann, L. R., Dunow, E., Romanoff, R., & Yarmel, P. W. (1987). Aggression and its correlates over 22 years. In D. H. Crowell, I. M. Evans, & C. R. O’Donnell (Eds.), Childhood aggression and violence: Sources of influence prevention, and control (pp. 249–262). New York: Plenum.Google Scholar
- Glasser, B. G. (1978). Theoretical sensitivity: advances in the methodology of grounded theory. Mill Valley: Sociology.Google Scholar
- Glasser, B. G. (1992). Basics of grounded theory analysis: Emergence versus forcing. Mill Valley: Sociology.Google Scholar
- Glaser, B. G., & Strauss, A. L. (1967). The discovery of grounded theory. Chicago: Aldine.Google Scholar
- Iranian Feminist Newsletter (2002). Second Edition. http://www.badjens.com/secondedition/divorce.htm. Accessed 18 February 2008.
- Jazayeri, A., Nazari, M. A., & Rafiey, H. (2003). Tehran secondary school students’ attitudes toward addiction. Social Welfare, 2, 217–229.Google Scholar
- Moussawi, S. G. h., Ebrahimi, A., Mohammadi, M. E., & Sahari, J. (1999). Addiction and socio-economic factors. Research in Medical Sciences (Isfahan), 3, 305–308.Google Scholar
- Mulrine, A. (2007). The drug trade’s collateral damage. U.S. News & World Report. http://www.usnews.com/usnews/news/articles/070624/2afghan.htm. Accessed 18 December 2007.
- Raisdana, F., & Nakhjavani, A. G. (2002). The drug market in Iran. Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, 582, 149–166.Google Scholar
- Razzaghi, E. M., Mokri, A., & Vazirian, M. (2005). Effectiveness of methadone maintenance program in reducing illicit drug use and HIV related high-risk behavior: A multi-center study. The United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime. http://www.unodc.org/pdf/iran/publications/MMT%20Pilot%20report%20for%20UNODC%20final%20(March%202005).pdf. Accessed 12 February 2008.
- Razzaghi, E. M., Movaghar, A. R., Green, T. C., & Khoshnood K. (2006). Profiles of risk: a qualitative study of injecting drug users in Tehran, Iran. Harm Reduction Journal, 3(12), 1–13.Google Scholar
- Razzaghi, E. M., Rahimi, A., Hosseini, M., Madani, S., & Chatterjee, A. (1999). Rapid situation assessment of drug abuse in Iran. Iranian Welfare Organization and UNDCP. http://www.unodc.org/pdf/iran/publications/RSA2000SUMMARY.pdf. 22 January 2008.
- Riessman, C. K. (1993). Narrative analysis. Qualitative research methods series no. 30. Newbury Park: Sage.Google Scholar
- Samiei, M., Refiey, H., & Taheri Nakhost, H. R. (2002). Psycho-social profile of Iranian adolescent addicts. Journal of Rehabilitation, 3, 56–62.Google Scholar
- Sattari, B. (2002). Investigation of the tendency rate among those who are 10 years old to addiction in Ardebil province in 2002. Social Welfare, 3, 263–282.Google Scholar
- Strauss, A., & Corbin, J. (1990). Basics of qualitative research: Grounded theory procedures and techniques. Newbury Park: Sage.Google Scholar
- Strauss, A., & Corbin, J. (1998). Basics of qualitative research: Techniques and procedures for developing grounded theory. Thousand Oak: Sage.Google Scholar
- UNODC: United Nations Office for Drug and Crime (1953). Quasi-Medical Use of Opium. http://www.unodc.org/unodc/en/data-and-analysis/bulletin/bulletin_1953-01-01_3_page008.html#n01. Accessed 27 February 2008.
- UNODC: United Nations Office for Drug and Crime (2005). World Drug Report. Volume 1: Analysis. http://www.unodc.org/pdf/WDR_2005/volume_1_web.pdf. Accessed 13 December 2007.
- UNODC: United Nations Office for Drug and Crime (2007). World Drug Report. http://www.unodc.org/pdf/research/wdr07/WDR_2007.pdf. 13 December 2007.
- Vafaiee, B., & Parandavar, M. (2004). The role of physical Illness in Substance Abuse. Asrar, 11, 60–65.Google Scholar
- Zahiredin, A. R., & Kiany, A. (2004). Childhood risk factors in substance abuse among a group of abusers 20–30 year-old group in Tehran. Scientific Journal of Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, 10, 38–42.Google Scholar
- Zohoor, A. R. (2001). Smoking and addiction among student of Kerman Bahonar University. Fundamentals of Mental Health, 3, 99–104.Google Scholar