Advertisement

Programma Conoscenza: Psycho-Educational, Integrated and Evolved Treatment for Cocaine Addiction

  • Andrea LeonardiEmail author
  • Paolo Fioravanti
  • Sonia Scavelli
  • Francesco Velicogna
Article
  • 87 Downloads

Abstract

The 2005 EMCDDA (European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction, Annual report 2005: the state of the drugs problem in Europe, from http://ar2005.emcdda.europa.eu/en/home-en.html?CFID=5556438&CFTOKEN=9393b63b806e64c7-FB015A79-E157-F9DE-99626FADD9F4C983&jsessionid=2e30185a01447c413a1e) annual report remarks the dearth of options for the treatment of the cocaine dependence, in comparison to a progressive and constant increase of the phenomenon. The Programma Conoscenza becomes part in this context providing its contribution to the resolution of the problems caused by the dependency from cocaine, by means of an integrated psycho-educational model. After four years of activity, it has been possible to carry out an appraisal of the outcomes obtained from the program. The collected data have showed a good effectiveness and efficiency of the treatment, with objective indices (i.e. urinary controls) that document, in the course of the treatment, the progressive abstinence from cocaine. The outcomes, obtained from the total appraisal of the therapeutic program, have demonstrated that in more of 60% of the cases, the persons have solved (or greatly improved) the problem of cocaine dependency.

Keywords

Cocaine Brief strategic therapy Action-research Treatment evaluation 

References

  1. Arnao, G. (1993). Cocaina e crack. Usi, abusi e consumi. Milano: Feltrinelli.Google Scholar
  2. Ashby, W. R. (1956). An introduction to cybernetics. London: Chapman and Hall.Google Scholar
  3. Ashley, R. (1975). Cocaine. Its history, uses and effects. New York: St. Martin’s Press.Google Scholar
  4. Bandura, A. (1997). Self-efficacy: The exercise of control. New York: Freeman.Google Scholar
  5. Bateson, G. (1973). Steps to an ecology of mind. London: Paladin Books.Google Scholar
  6. Bateson, G. (1980). Mind and nature: A necessary unity. New York: Bantam Books.Google Scholar
  7. Bertalanffy, L. (1968). General system theory: Foundations, development, applications. New York: Braziller.Google Scholar
  8. Braglia, D., Gerra, G., Mezzelani, P., Quaglio, G., Timpano, M. E., Zaimović, A., et al. (2004). Cocaina: farmacocinetica, abuso, dipendenza, detossificazione e trattamento. In U. Nizzoli & M. Pissacroia (Eds.), Trattato completo degli abusi e delle dipendenze (pp. 785–798). Padova: Piccin.Google Scholar
  9. Carroll, K. M. (1993). Psychotherapeutic treatment of cocaine abuse: models for its evaluation alone and in combination with pharmacotherapy. In F. M. Tims & C. G. Leukefeld (Eds.), Cocaine treatment: Research and clinical perspectives. Rockville, MD: National Institute on Drug Abuse.Google Scholar
  10. Carroll, K. M. (1998). A cognitive-behavioral approach: Treating cocaine addiction. Rockville, MD: National Institute on Drug Abuse.Google Scholar
  11. Childress, A. R., Mozley, P. D., Mc Elgin, W., Fitzgerald, J., Reivich, M., & O’Brien, C. P. (1999). Limbic activation during cue-induced cocaine craving. American Journal of Psychiatry, 156, 11–18.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Cialdini, R. B. (1989). Le armi della persuasione. Come e perché si finisce col dire di si. Firenze: Giunti Barbera.Google Scholar
  13. Erickson, M., & Rossi, E. (1981). Experiencing hypnosis: Therapeutic approaches to altered states. New York: Irvington.Google Scholar
  14. Erickson, M., Rossi, E., & Rossi, S. (1976). Hypnotic realities: The induction of clinical hypnosis and forms of indirect suggestion. New York: Irvington.Google Scholar
  15. European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction (EMCDDA) (Eds.) (2005). Annual report 2005: the state of the drugs problem in Europe. From http://ar2005.emcdda.europa.eu/en/homeen.html?CFID=5556438&CFTOKEN=9393b63b806e64c7-FB015A79-E157-F9DE-99626FADD9F4C983&jsessionid=2e30185a01447c413a1e.
  16. Gold, M. S., Washton, A. M., & Dackis, C. A. (1985). Cocaine abuse: neurochemistry, phenomenology and treatment. In N. J. Kozel & E. H. Adams (Eds.), Cocaine use in America: Epidemiologic and clinical perspectives. Rockville, MD: National Institute on Drug Abuse.Google Scholar
  17. Higgins, S. T., Budney, A. J., Bickel, W. K., Foerg, F. E., Donham, R., & Badger, G. J. (1994). Incentives improve outcome in outpatient behavioral treatment of cocaine dependence. Archive of General Psychiatry, 51(1), 568–576.Google Scholar
  18. Higgins, S. T., Delaney, D. D., Budney, A. J., Bickel, W. K., Ughes, J. R., Foerg, F., et al. (1991). A behavioral approach to achieving initial cocaine abstinence. American Journal of Psychiatry, 148(9), 1218–1224.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Kampman, K. M. (2005). Medications for cocaine abuse. Psychiatric Times, XXII(2). From http://www.psychiatrictimes.com/showArticle.jhtml?articleId=60403906.
  20. Lewin, K. (1946). Action research and minority problems. Journal of Social Issues, 2, 34–46.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Luborsky, L. (1984). Principles of psychoanalytic psychotherapy: A manual for supportive-expressive treatment. New York: Basic Books.Google Scholar
  22. Meyers, R. J., & Smith, J. E. (1995). Clinical guide to alcohol treatment: The community reinforcement approach. New York: Guilford.Google Scholar
  23. Miller, W. R., & Rollnick, S. (1992). Motivational interviewing: preparing people to change addictive behavior. New York: Guilford.Google Scholar
  24. Ministero della solidarietà sociale (Eds.) (2005). Relazione annuale al Parlamento sullo stato delle tossicodipendenze in Italia 2005. From http://www.solidarietasociale.gov.it/NR/rdonlyres/C1A0C0D5-4393-474E-8E2E-7F1228D1CF70/0/RelazionealParlamento2005pd.pdf.
  25. Molinaro, S., Salvadori, S., & Mariani, F. (2006). Epidemiologia dell’uso e del consumo problematico di cocaina in Italia. In G. Serpelloni, T. Macchia & G. Gerra (Eds.), Cocaina. Manuale di aggiornamento tecnico scientifico. Progetto START, Dipartimento Nazionale per le Politiche Antidroga, Vago di Lavagno (Verona): Tipografia La Grafica.Google Scholar
  26. Nardone, G., & Watzlawick, P. (1990). L’arte del cambiamento: la soluzione dei problemi psicologici personali e interpersonali in tempi brevi. Firenze: Ponte alle Grazie.Google Scholar
  27. Nestler, E. J. (2001). Molecular basis of long term plasticity underlying addiction. Nature Reviews Neurosciences, 2(2), 103–104.Google Scholar
  28. Nizzoli, U., & Pissacroia, M. (2004). Trattato completo degli Abusi e delle Dipendenze. Padova: Piccin.Google Scholar
  29. Presidenza del Consiglio dei Ministri (Eds.) (2004). Relazione annuale al Parlamento sullo stato delle tossicodipendenze in Italia 2004. From http://www.iss.it/ofad/drog/cont.php?id=169&lang=1&tipo=5.
  30. Rampin, M., & Nardone, G. (2002). Terapie apparentemente magiche. Milano: McGraw Hill.Google Scholar
  31. Robinson, T., & Berridge, K. C. (2001). Incentive-sensitization and addiction. Nature Reviews Neurosciences, 96(1), 103–114.Google Scholar
  32. Rousanville, B. J., & Carroll, K. M. (1993). Interpersonal psychotherapy for drug users. In G. L. Clerman, & M. M. Weissman (Eds.), New Applications of interpersonal psychotherapy (pp. 319–352). Washington DC: American Psychiatric Association Press.Google Scholar
  33. Salvini, A., Testoni, I., & Zampironi, A. (1998). Droghe, tossicofilie e tossicodipendenza. Torino: UTET.Google Scholar
  34. Von Foerster, H. (1974). Notes pour une épistémologie des objets vivants. In E. Morin & M. Piateli Palmerini (Eds.), L’unité de l’homme. Paris: Edition du Seuil.Google Scholar
  35. Von Foerster, H. (1991). Las Semillas de la Cibernetica. Obras escogidas. In M. Pakman (Ed.), Presentaci¢n Carlos Sluzki. Barcelona: Gedisa editorial.Google Scholar
  36. Von Glasersfeld, E. (1995). Radical constructivism. London: The Falmer Press.Google Scholar
  37. Washton, A., Gold, M., & Pottash, A. (1986). Crack: early report on a new drug epidemic. Postgraduate Medicine, 89(5), 52–58.Google Scholar
  38. Watzlawick, P. (1978). The language of change: Elements of therapeutic communication. New York: Basic Books.Google Scholar
  39. Watzlawick, P., Beavin, J., & Jackson, D. D. (1967). Pragmatics of human communication: A study of interactional patterns, pathologies, and paradoxes. New York: W. W. Norton.Google Scholar
  40. Watzlawick, P., & Nardone, G. (1997). Terapia breve strategica. Milano: Raffaello Cortina Editore.Google Scholar
  41. Watzlawick, P., Weakland, J. H., & Fisch, R. (1974). Change: Principles of problem formation and problem resolution. New York: W. W. Norton.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  • Andrea Leonardi
    • 1
    Email author
  • Paolo Fioravanti
    • 1
  • Sonia Scavelli
    • 1
  • Francesco Velicogna
    • 1
  1. 1.Programma ConoscenzaCentro di Solidarietà di FirenzeFlorenceItaly

Personalised recommendations