Management of Opioid Dependence in Pregnancy: A Review of the Evidence

  • Dykes Maxwell YoungEmail author


Conventional wisdom regarding management of opioid dependence in pregnancy calls for methadone maintenance in nearly all cases. The scientific literature and historical background upon which this recommendation is based, newer evidence indicating the safety of methadone discontinuation during pregnancy and recent studies raising concerns about the effects of methadone on the fetus and neonate are reviewed. More flexibility in the management of opioid dependence during pregnancy is recommended.


Opioid dependence Pregnancy Detoxification Neonatal abstinence syndrome Microcephaly Congenital malformation Relapse Methadone MMT Methadone maintenance Prescription opioids Heroin Residential treatment Abstinence 


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Chemical Dependency TreatmentKaiser PermanenteSan FranciscoUSA

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