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Fabrication of Sub-10-nm Plasmonic Gaps for Ultra-Sensitive Raman Spectroscopy

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Abstract

The past two decades have witnessed the explosion of activities in the field of surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS). SERS platforms employ nano-structures that excite plasmonic modes with large local electromagnetic fields localized within small gap spaces between each constituting feature. Although the research-oriented SERS platforms yield significant signal enhancements to identify even single molecules, practical SERS-based sensors have not been fully introduced yet. The main reason behind this absence is the need for a cost-effective and reliable manufacturing method for controllable fabrication of plasmonic nano-gaps over large areas. In this article, we introduced a novel manufacturing process that enables fast and scalable fabrication of highly uniform sub-10-nm gaps that could yield large SERS signals. In this process, a conventional electroplating technique is used to produce unique nano-mushroom antenna arrays on a conducting substrate, resulting in controllable gap spaces between mushroom heads. By understanding the nature of mushroom shape antenna formation, we demonstrated the control of inter-metallic gaps down to 5 nm. We showed that the manufactured nano-structures yield Raman enhancements more than 108. Providing such large SERS signals that are uniform over large areas, our cost-effective fabrication technique could be very critical to realize practical SERS devices.

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Acknowledgments

A.E.C. acknowledges Izmir Biomedicine and Genome Center Start-Up Research Grant and the BAGEP Award of the Science Academy.

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Correspondence to Arif E. Cetin.

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Cetin, A.E., Yilmaz, C., Galarreta, B.C. et al. Fabrication of Sub-10-nm Plasmonic Gaps for Ultra-Sensitive Raman Spectroscopy. Plasmonics (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11468-020-01137-3

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Keywords

  • Plasmonics
  • Surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy
  • Nano-fabrication