, Volume 14, Issue 6, pp 1823–1830 | Cite as

Metal Nanowire Assisted Hollow Core Fiber Sensor for an Efficient Detection of Small Refractive Index Change of Measurand Liquid

  • A. K. PathakEmail author
  • S. Ghosh
  • R. K. Gangwar
  • B. M. A. Rahman
  • V. K. Singh


In this article, a cost-effective hollow core fiber (HCF)-based refractive index (RI) sensor using surface plasmon resonance (SPR) is designed and demonstrated. The sensor consists of a metal nanowire inside an HCF along with the sensing medium of various refractive indices. SPR effect between polaritons and the guided core mode of designed HCF is exploited to enhance the sensing performance. A full vectorial finite element method (FEM) is used for the design and analyses of the sensing probes which exhibit very high sensitivities of 12,400 nm/RIU, 10560 nm/RIU, and 6400 nm/RIU for copper (Cu), gold (Au), and silver (Ag), respectively with a resolution of 1.61 × 10−6 RIU. Additionally, the influence of metal wire dimension is also investigated in this paper. The reported simple and low-cost sensor exhibits high sensitivity for liquid with refractive indices slightly higher than that of the dielectric tube, such as olive oil, turpentine, kerosene, chloroform, carbon tetrachloride, glycerol, and toluene.


Hollow core fiber Refractive index sensor Surface plasmon resonance Nanowire Sensitivity 



This work is supported in part by City, University of London, under exchange fellowship program conducted by EM Leaders. Authors are also thankful to IIT(ISM), Dhanbad Jharkhand to provide research facility.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • A. K. Pathak
    • 1
    Email author
  • S. Ghosh
    • 2
  • R. K. Gangwar
    • 3
  • B. M. A. Rahman
    • 2
  • V. K. Singh
    • 1
  1. 1.Optical Fiber LaboratoryIndian Institute of Technology (Indian School of Mines)DhanbadIndia
  2. 2.Department of School of Mathematics, Computer Science and EngineeringCity University LondonLondonUK
  3. 3.Centre for Applied Photonics, The Institute for Systems and Computer EngineeringTechnology and Science (INESC-TEC) PortoPortoPortugal

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