Advertisement

Plasmonics

pp 1–8 | Cite as

Metamaterial-Based Energy Harvesting for Detectivity Enhanced Infrared Detectors

  • Taghi Mohamadi
  • Leila Yousefi
Article
  • 58 Downloads

Abstract

In this paper, we propose new detectivity enhanced infrared detectors in which metamaterial cells are used to harvest the IR energy. Analytical models are developed and numerically verified to predict the behavior of the proposed detectors. Detectivity improvement factor (DIF) is defined to compare the performance of the proposed detectors with traditional ones. Numerical results show that the proposed detectors can provide a DIF value as high as 60. A comprehensive parametric study is performed to investigate how different physical and electrical parameters affect the performance of the proposed detectors. In this study, the effects of the shape of the resonators, their dimensions, and the metal from which they are made, on the performance of the proposed detectors, are investigated.

Keywords

Metamaterials IR detector Energy harvesting Enhanced field 

References

  1. 1.
    Ziolkowski RW (2003) Design, fabrication, and testing of double negative metamaterials. IEEE Trans Antennas Propag 51:1516–1529CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Engheta N, Ziolkowski RW (2006) Metamaterials: physics and engineering explorations. John Wiley & SonsGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Smith DR, Schultz S, Markoš P, Soukoulis CM (2002) Determination of effective permittivity and permeability of metamaterials from reflection and transmission coefficients. Phys Rev B 65:195104CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Yousefi L, Boybay S, Ramahi OM (2011) Characterization of metamaterials using a strip line fixture. IEEE Trans Antennas Propag 59:1245–1253CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Kamali SM, Arbabi E, Arbabi A, Horie Y, Faraon A (2016) Highly tunable elastic dielectric metasurface lenses. Laser Photonics Rev 10:1002–1008CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Attia H, Yousefi L, Ramahi OM (2011) High gain patch antennas loaded with high characteristic impedance superstrates. IEEE Antennas Wirel. Propag Lett 10:858–861Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Edwards B, Alu A, Silveirinha M, Engheta N (2009) Experimental verification of plasmonic cloaking at microwave frequencies with metamaterials. Phys Rev Lett 103:153901–153904CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Haji-Ahmadi M-J, Nayyeri V, Soleimani M, Ramahi OM (2017) Pixelated checkerboard metasurface for ultra-wideband radar cross section reduction. Sci Rep 7:11437CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Shoaei M, Moravvej-Farshi M, Yousefi L (2015) All-optical switching of nonlinear hyperbolic metamaterials in visible and near-infrared regions. J Opt Soc Am B 32:2358–2365CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Shoaei M, Moravvej-Farshi M, Yousefi L (2015) Nanostructured graphene-based hyperbolic metamaterial performing as a wide-angle near infrared electro-optical switch. Appl Opt 54:1206–1211CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Hawkes AM, Katko AR, Cummer SA (2013) A microwave metamaterial with integrated power harvesting functionality. Appl Phys Lett 103:163901CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Alshareef MR, Ramahi OM (2014) Electrically small particles combining even-and odd-mode currents for microwave energy harvesting. Appl Phys Lett 104:253906CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Ramahi OM, Almoneef TS, Alshareef M, Boybay MS (2012) Metamaterial particles for electromagnetic energy harvesting. Appl Phys Lett 101:173903CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Almoneef T, Ramahi OM (2015) Split-ring resonator arrays for electromagnetic energy harvesting. Prog Electromagn Res 62:167–180CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Alshareef MR, Ramahi OM (2013) Electrically small resonators for energy harvesting in the infrared regime. J Appl Phys 114:223101CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Bründermann E, Hübers HW, Kimmit MF (2012) Terahertz Techniques. SpringerGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Huang Y, Tien EK, Gao S, Kalyoncu SK, Song Q, Qian F, Adas E, Yildirim D, Boyraz O (2008) Electrical signal-to-noise ratio improvement in indirect detection of mid-IR signals by wavelength conversion in silicon-on-sapphire waveguides. Appl Phys Lett 99:181122CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Sarabandi K, Choi S (2013) Design optimization of bowtie nanoantenna for high-efficiency thermophotovoltaics. J Appl Phys 114:214303CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Choi S (2014) Efficient Antennas for Terahertz and Optical Frequencies PhD Thesis University of MichiganGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Podor B, Horvath ZJ, Rakovics V (2009) Electrical and optical properties of InGaAsSb/GaSb 32nd Int. Spring Seminar on Electronic Technology, p 1–4Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Delgado V, Sydoruk O, Tatartschuk E, Marqués R, Freire MJ, Jelinek L (2009) Analytical circuit model for split ring resonators in the far infrared and optical frequency range. Metamaterials 3:57–62CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Mohamadi T, Yousefi L (2016) Detectivity enhanced IR detectors using metamaterials Fourth Int Conference on Millimeter-Wave and Terahertz Technologies, p 48–51Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Ordal MA, Long LL, Bell RJ, Bell SE, Bell RR, Alexander RW, Ward CA (1983) Optical properties of the metals al, co, cu, au, fe, pb, ni, pd, pt, ag, ti, and w in the infrared and far infrared. 22:1099–119CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Guo H, Meyrath TP, Zentgraf T, Liu N, Fu L, Schweizer H, Giessen H (2008) Optical resonances of bowtie slot antennas and their geometry and material dependence. Opt Express 16:7756–7766CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Constantine AB (1982) Antenna theory: analysis and design. John Wiley & SonsGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of Electrical and Computer EngineeringUniversity of TehranTehranIran
  2. 2.Electrical and Computer Engineering DepartmentUniversity of WaterlooWaterlooCanada

Personalised recommendations