, Volume 14, Issue 1, pp 133–138 | Cite as

Design and Optimization of a Graphene Modulator Based on Hybrid Plasmonic Waveguide with Double Low-Index Slots

  • Jinyu Luan
  • Meiyong Fan
  • Pengfei Zheng
  • Huimin Yang
  • Guohua Hu
  • Binfeng YunEmail author
  • Yiping CuiEmail author


Graphene modulators based on surface plasmonic waveguides enable a strong interaction between light and graphene because great electric field enhancement occurs in the sub-wavelength region. However, a tight field confinement will cause a large metal absorption of light. Thus, graphene modulator base on hybrid plasmonic waveguide has a tradeoff between the propagation loss and the modulation depth. Here, we achieved a good balance between them by designing and optimizing an electro-optic modulator based on hybrid plasmonic waveguide with four graphene layers. The structure of the waveguide is metal/insulator/Si/insulator/metal. The modulation depth and the propagation loss of the modulator are 0.524 and 0.05 dB/μm respectively, which make a relatively high figure of merit about 10.5. Also the obtained modulation bandwidth and power consumption are 150 GHz and 0.607 pJ/bit, respectively.


Graphene Hybrid Plasmonic waveguide Modulator 



This work was supported by the National Science Foundation of Jiangsu Province Grant No. BK 20161429.


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© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Advanced Photonics CenterSoutheast UniversityNanjingChina

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